Programme Management

The initial development of this part of the website formed part of the capacity building programme of  Prisma.

Prisma is an association of Christian development organizations that consider poverty alleviation part of their communal responsibility. HIV and AIDS is a central aspect of the work of many of these organisations. In 2004, an extensive consultation process and investigation was launched including the Prisma organisations involved in HIV and Aids, and their partner organisations addressing the pandemic in Southern Africa. In this process a need for organisational capacity building was identified. A comprehensive capacity building plan was developed, which includes this portion of the website.

 Here you will find a variety of information resources from the southern and Northern partners as well as other NGO sources that will help you run a project more efficiently and effectively, taking your project to new heights.  These resources are from external sources and are suggested as guideline.  CABSA and CARIS does not necessarily endorse everything in these resources.


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Situational Analysis, Needs Assesment and Planning


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The Business Case for Capacity Building. 1/7/2015

 Sangonet NGO Pulse

Capacity building is a term associated with interventions geared towards strengthening the functioning of NPOs as it should be an integral part of any business’s development plan, both for-profit and NPOs need to make it a priority 

In the nonprofit organisations (NPO) space, capacity building interventions are generally identified and funded by donors who share one or more of the following concerns regarding a non-profit organisation:

  •  Financial stability;
  • Key donor dependency;
  • Efficiency of systems and processes;
  • Poor governance;
  • A founder leader syndrome and/or; and
  • The need to plan for senior leadership succession.


That being said, capacity building is so much more than a purely funded intervention however. It rather needs to be valued as an integral part of any business’s development plan, whether the company is for profit or not for profit. This is because capacity building is about strategy and, I would argue, synonymous with the principles of regularly reviewing and executing an organisation’s strategy.

Having studied countless definitions and case studies of capacity building interventions, all generally point to the following common themes, each of which resonates with the principles of strategy formulation and execution:

  • Evaluating and addressing crucial questions relating to purpose and vision;
  • Understanding internal and external needs and opportunities;
  • Understanding the external operating environment, including threats;
  • Reviewing organisational structure to ensure alignment with purpose and strategy;
  • Implementation options; and
  • Values.

All too often, NPOs do not have the financial means, time or resources to commit to a holistic strategy and capacity building interventions. By the very nature of their work, non-profits are often steeped in the belly and grit of development, with little time for reflection nor the financial means to continuously assess and enhance the health of their organisations. That being said, funders who have developed meaningful partnerships with nonprofits have a vested interest to ensure the continuous growth and success of the nonprofit sector – and the organisations they are directly involved with. It stands to reason that any investor/shareholder will back an organisation that it identifies with, understands the growth potential of and with which it shares a common vision of success. As such, capacity building within an NPO is often an issue raised external to the organisation.

Capacity building that is imposed by a funder has very little chance of success, however. Without the buy-in of the board in the first instance, as well as senior management, an external advisor who is funded to support an organisation is likely to gain little traction. While funders may see red flags emerging such as a decline in reserves, a shrinking donor base, key staff dependency and poor operating models and systems, if the leadership of the nonprofit is unwilling to address these issues then it is not worth investing time or resources.

In this type of instance it is important for a funder to try and understand why an organisation would resist such an intervention. Is it because of a lack of understanding of the risks the organisation is likely to face? Is it a matter of timing or internal changes? Could it be due to possible mismanagement? Could it be as a result of funder fatigue imposing interventions on the nonprofit? Is it because of a lack of trust between the senior executive and the board? Once the reason has been identified, one can then attempt to address – and remedy – this.

In instances where a partnership is established between a funder and nonprofit who are jointly committed to enhancing the work of the organisation, parties can then define the intended outcome of the capacity building intervention and plan it accordingly. During the actual implementation thereof, key indicators can be tracked throughout. This will ensure that capacity building is not viewed as a once-off event, but rather seen to take time and add long-term systemic value. If the intervention is carefully planned, monitored and evaluated on an ongoing basis, the return on this investment will also far outweigh the time and resources spent.

That the role of donors moving beyond providing funding for core operating or programme costs to include interventions that support and build the foundation of NPOs can only be good for the sector. As NPOs continue to work with donors to address inequality and poverty in South Africa, capacity building interventions will arguably become even more important in the long term - ensuring sustainable impact in communities.

Tracey Henry is chief executive officer at Tshikululu Social Investments (TSI). This article first appeared on the TSI website. 




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Community Organising - Handbook for CBOs. (2006) IDASA

The single most powerful asset that community-based organisations (CBOs) have is that they are so close to the people in their communities. This means you and your organisation are best placed to identify the needs of your community. You also are most able to organise the different sections or parts of your community in a way that ensures their voices are heard and they have a say in what happens in the community.
This notebook will guide you on some of the strategies and techniques you can use to enable your organisation to have the biggest impact possible at a local level. You might use some of these strategies and techniques already. The main aim of this guide is to help you to check to see if what you are doing can be improved by using the structured tools and techniques of development. We hope that you will find some new ideas that will make your work at local level more powerful. Download from IDASA website at, under Programmes, Institutional Capacity Building .

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Counting Carers (HelpAge International)

How to improve data collection and information on households affected by AIDS and reduce the poverty of carers, people living with HIV and vulnerable children. Download (160KB)

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Needs Assessment.

Part of the National Minority AIDS Council “Organizational Effectiveness Manuals Series”.  The purpose of this training manual is to present the techniques for completing an assessment of a nonprofit organization.  Download PDF (2.23MB, 50 p)

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The South African Nonprofit Sector: Struggling to Survive, Needing to Thrive

This article focuses on the South African nonprofit sector and certain challenges that plague civil society as a whole
Tuesday, April 9

At present, South Africa (SA) has an extensive and lively non-governmental sector which boasts roughly 100 000 registered nonprofit organisations (NPOs) and an estimated 50 000 unregistered ones.(2) SA’s large nonprofit sector is the product of a diverse society including a variety of ethnic groups and a history that has informed the way in which South African society operates as a whole, as well as the way in which the nonprofit sector conducts its operations.

The prevalence of NPOs in SA can be explained by the postulation that, “Nonprofit provision of collective goods will be large in societies with high levels of inequality in individuals’ effective demand for collective goods or high degrees of religious or ethnic heterogeneity.”(3) SA is, indeed, very ethnically diverse, and the inequality in the effectiveness of individuals’ demand for goods is a common feature of present South African society, brought about, in part, by years of racial segregation and oppression. This was exemplified by a bifurcated welfare system in which the majority of government welfare spending went to a small, white minority.(4) This left vast sections of the population without adequate government support.

Presently, the South African NPO sector is characterised by two types of organisations, the first being service driven, and the second being organisations that focus on human rights, advocacy and monitoring. The former fulfils the role of providing much needed social services to underprivileged communities, and the latter performs the role of social ‘watchdog’. It is widely held that a stable and active civil society aids in poverty alleviation and civil society capacity building, enhancing public debate and participation and the promotion of democracy.(5) Therefore, the need for a healthy and active civil society in SA cannot be overemphasised.

New-generation NGOs

The rise in civil society organisations, not only in South Africa, but around the world, appears to have been influenced by the need for organisations that respond to citizens’ needs at a human level and which can represent them in the face of states of ever-increasing size and a market economy grown so “virtual, large and hyper-real” that it actively alienates most in the general population.(6) Simultaneously, the state continues to perform less of the functions it should, and civil society organisations (CSOs) arise to ‘fill the democratic vacuum’.(7) The state is especially withdrawing from many areas of social support,(8) leaving CSOs to fill the gap. Indeed, it has been argued that the economic imperatives of the neoliberal agenda dictate that “(a) the state, particularly in Third World countries, should withdraw from the social sector; (b) the market should be freed from all constraints; and (c) people in civil society should organise their own social and economic reproduction instead of depending on the state.”(9) Following the end of apartheid, the South African government adopted a neoliberal economic model, marked by the implementation of the Growth, Employment and Redistribution (GEAR) macroeconomic strategy that prioritised the “for-profit sector in economic growth and service delivery.”(10)

The current NPO sector can be characterised by what is known as new-generation NGOs. Organisationally they are configured to have strong partnerships with the public and corporate sectors, and have innovative funding models and a variety of resource mobilisation strategies. The partnerships with the state have had the effect of introducing public sector concepts and tools, such as the log frame, targets and results-based management, into the NGO sector.(11) Equally, other NGOs have closer relations with corporations, leading them to swing towards increased ‘managerialism’ within their organisations.(12) These factors have led to the “promotion of more streamlined managerial structures and a higher degree of professionalism within the NPO”(13) as, over an extended period, basic strategic planning, monitoring, evaluation and general management skills have entered the sector.(14)

Furthermore, in light of increasing partnerships with the public and corporate sectors, and the need to develop more innovative ways of raising funds, the need for appropriate levels of accountability and transparency, particularly in the context of widespread corruption, has become more pressing than it was in the past. Particularly, recent growth in the NGO sector has led to calls from the corporate, state and civil sectors, for increased accountability of NGOs.(15) NGOs are increasingly required to adhere to monitoring and evaluation standards applied in the public and corporate sectors, forcing many NGOs to ‘corporatise’.(16)

Current issues facing the South African NGO sector

Various factors constrain NGOs in SA in their efforts to fulfil their role of promoting environmental and/or social goals by providing services and performing humanitarian functions, bringing citizens’ concerns to governments, monitoring policies and encouraging political participation.

While the demand for increased accountability and the consequent corporatisation of NGOs are not altogether negative developments, some have argued that they have led to the commercialisation of the NPO sector. NGOs which successfully professionalise stand a better chance of receiving funds from donors, compared to NGOs that follow a more classic donor-beneficiary model.(17) This increased professionalism affects the organisational culture of NGOs, leading many to adopt expertise that is stipulated by donors. In addition, the emergence of a ‘report culture’ has developed, which places more emphasis on measuring and counting ‘activities completed’, ‘performance indicators met’ and ‘outputs achieved,’” than on asking what difference the programme or intervention makes.(18) As such “demands for rigorous standards of accountability, transparency and financial self-sufficiency imposed by donors” on the NPO sector “have the unintended effect of distancing these organisations from the very poor and marginalised communities that they are meant to serve.”(19)

Funding is also a major obstacle that NGOs in SA face. As a result of the global economic crisis, from which SA was not spared, the country’s NGOs are experiencing funding problems, as donations, particularly from individual and private donors, have diminished substantially.(20) The recession has also seen Corporate Social Investment (CSI) budgets reduced.(21) As a result of reduced private and corporate donor funding, many NGOs have sought more funding from government to keep afloat, ultimately creating increased competition among NGOs for government funds. The danger in this is that it is questionable whether, under such monetary dependency, especially on government, NGOs can continue to enjoy relative impartiality,(22) due to the expectation that NGOs should be accountable to, and should mirror, funding agencies in their operations. NGOs will inevitably develop a very close relationship with the state, and may, at times, even be difficult to distinguish from the state.(23) Often NGOs become more like the bodies from which they acquire funding, than the societies they intend to represent.(24) NGOs are arguably being transformed into “development sub-contractors whose primary concerns are to fulfil the multiple objectives and accountability procedures of their diverse funders.”(25) This notion speaks to concerns “that relying on government funding would detract from creating the active citizenry needed to utilise post-apartheid, democratic tools of social change, and that it is possible that diminishing funding has eroded the advocacy function of the NPO sector.”(26)

It is not just ideological or structural issues that constrain South African NGOs. The Nonprofit Organisations Act of 1997, which was drafted to clarify the NPO sector’s role in the new democratic SA, in practice, proves to be problematic. The Act maintains that government is obliged to create an enabling environment for the nonprofit sector: “every organ of state must determine and coordinate the implementation of its policies and measures in a manner designed to promote, support and enhance the capacity of NPOs to perform their functions.”(27) However, many NPOs have difficulty accessing government support, forming partnerships, obtaining funding and building capacity (28) that will allow them to fulfil their mandates.

This is because much government support is geared toward social security, which is characterised by “government’s provision of social grants (which are direct cash transfers) and is strongly remedial and maintenance orientated.”(29) This is in contrast to the developmental social service delivery model that government and the NGO sector have attempted to implement post-1994. Developmental social service delivery is an approach that couples skills development projects with social services such as promotion and prevention services, rehabilitation services, protection services, continuing care services and mental health and addiction services.(30)  It is argued that a developmental approach will be more effective in ensuring that those utilising social security eventually reduce their dependency on social grants and services, and become independent and self-sufficient members of society. However, government has not even been able to keep up with the increasing demands of the poor for basic social services,(31) and developmental social services, while viewed as being more sustainable in the long run, do not allow NGOs to meet the immediate and vast demands of the masses living below the poverty line.

The issue of qualifying for funding made headline news in South Africa in January 2013 when the Department of Social Development deregistered 36488 of just over 100000 NGOs.(32) This created widespread fear in the sector that fundraising efforts would be thwarted, because, in order to qualify for funding from the government as well the National Lottery Fund, NGOs are required to have a registration number. The department listed the deregistered NGOs as non-compliant because they had not submitted annual and financial reports.(33) This move was controversial, as some NGOs claimed that their documentation was in order and that the Department of Social Development had deregistered these NGOs merely to compensate for the fact that money had previously been given to NGOs without any monitoring and evaluation standards being in place. Therefore, some NGOs labelled the mass deregistration as an attempt by the department to ‘cover-up’ their past inefficiencies.(34)

Government’s lack of support for NGOs is further evidenced by the fact that many NGOs do not receive government funding because the lack of transparent or standardised criteria for the financing of social services has led to major discrepancies in the allocation of funds to NGOs.(35) The Department for Social Development’s Policy on Financial Awards to Service Providers, for example, includedguidelines for the implementation of the policy, which, although intended to provide broad direction, were nevertheless criticised for being too vague, leaving many NGOs unclear on “norms, service standards and key performance indicators,”(36) which ultimately inhibits NGOs’ ability to procure funding and ensure optimum function. It is not unreasonable for government to expect NGOs to meet certain funding criteria, but the onus is on government to ensure that criteria are clearly outlined and explained, particularly before they deregister so-called non-compliant NGOs.

Another issue plaguing South African civil society is the increase in government criticism of NGOs and the work they perform. The Mail & Guardian newspaper, for example, described how the South African Democratic Teachers’ Union (SADTU), accused education NGOs of pushing neoliberal agendas through their use of foreign funding.(37) SADTU, general secretary Mugwena Maluleke, further accused NGOs of ‘working with other political parties’, and stated that, “they are driving an agenda that education is a national crisis [and] using education to destroy the confidence of the public [in the government].”(38) By accusing NGOs of working with other political parties, Maluleke is implying that the NPO sector is ‘anti-government’. However, simply working with political parties other than the ruling party is not evidence that the NGO sector is anti-government.

It could be argued that Maluleke’s accusations are simply a reaction to NGOs’ exposure of government shortcomings. Many NGOs are independently-funded through foreign and private sources, and, as result, enjoy autonomy, which allows them to lobby and criticise the government. Furthermore, in the case of the textbook crisis that plagued the Limpopo Province, where several schools in the area did not receive the prescribed textbooks that were the responsibility of the Department of Basic Education to provide, NGOs were instrumental in bringing legal action against the government for not meeting its legal and constitutional obligations. Indeed, the basic education department has faced a wave of litigation in 2012, as civil society organisations found themselves ‘forced’ to take legal recourse due to the government's inaction in the face of the crisis in education.(39) Mark Heywood, the director of SECTION27, the organisation that took the basic education department to court twice in 2012 over the non-delivery of textbooks in Limpopo, has alleged that the accusations by SADTU echo those of senior political leaders, South African Communist Party General Secretary, Blade Nzimande, in particular.(40)

The inherent contradiction in the criticisms lodged by SADTU is that, while some government departments view NGOs as a threat mainly because they are independently funded, the government makes it so difficult for NGOs to qualify for funding from government itself.

Concluding remarks

In light of the global recession, increased corporatisation and competition, reduced government funding, intangible government funding criteria, and a general lack of government support, the nonprofit sector in SA currently faces many challenges. This is true particularly in the broader social welfare context, in that the South African Government has appeared to follow neoliberal socio-economic policies, which, by definition, require social spending rollbacks. It can also be asserted that “the politics of the day substantially influences funding policies”(41) which now seems to be making  its way into the current government’s approach to welfare, with the bulk of government spending going to social security as opposed to social service delivery and social development. After all, it is much easier, if short sighted, to keep voters happy with direct cash transfers in the form of grants, than by implementing developmental projects that do not necessarily see immediate results.

Government’s requirements for registration as an NPO are justified and compliance with criteria for registration is necessary. However, regulation and support must act in tandem, because focusing solely on compliance and regulation without providing the necessary support would result in the alienation of a large part SA’s nonprofit sector, particularly smaller NGOs.(42) Furthermore, an unintended consequence of the reorientation of accountability away from the grassroots is that it leads to NGOs and their funders becoming complicit in “perpetuating the syndrome of disadvantage by turning accountability away from the beneficiaries towards the funders.”(43)

The South African nonprofit sector plays a vital part in assisting the government to fulfil its constitutional mandate. The socio-economic rights enshrined in the constitution would be out of reach for most South Africans if not for the presence of a vibrant and active nonprofit sector.(44) Despite this, a disturbing trend of civil society criticism by government factions is creeping into public discourse. Under apartheid, independent civil society was the voice of resistance, and a result was criticised and discriminated against by the government. Arguably, this trend is being revitalised. Should the civil sector suffer such criticism, and, more importantly, can government afford to alienate the sector considering that it is picking up much of government’s slack?


Lauren Stuart, Consultancy Africa’s Intelligence (CAI) Africa Watch Unit ( This CAI paper was developed with the assistance of Claire Furphy and was edited by Nicky Berg.
This edition of the CAI Africa Unit Watch Issues Newsletter is republished here with permission from Consultancy Africa Intelligence (CAI), a South African-based research and strategy firm with a focus on social, health, political and economic trends and developments in Africa. For more information, see or Alternatively, click here to take advantage of CAI’s free, no obligation, 1-month trial to the company’s Standard Report Series.
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For more information, see or

(2) Jankelowitz, L., 2007. Managing South African nonprofit organisations for sustainability.Unpublished Master’s Thesis. University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg; The South African Department of Social Development refers to non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and community based organisations (CBOs) collectively as nonprofit organisations.
(3) Weisbrod, B.A., 1986. “Toward a theory of the voluntary non-profit sector in a three sector economy”, in Rose-Ackerman, S. (ed.). The economics of nonprofit institutions.Studies in structure and policy. Oxford University Press: New York.
(4) Patel, L., 2005. Social welfare and social development. Oxford University Press: Cape Town.
(5) Ibid.
(6) Pratt, B. and Myhrman, T., ‘Improving aid effectiveness: A review of recent initiatives for civil society organisations’, International NCO Training and Resource Centre, May 2009,
(7) Ibid.
(8) Ibid.
(9) Ibid.
(10) ‘Critical perspectives on sustainability of the South African civil society sector’, Charities Aid Foundation Southern Africa, 2012,
(11) Pratt, B. and Myhrman, T., ‘Improving aid effectiveness: A review of recent initiatives for civil society organisations’, International NCO Training and Resource Centre, May 2009,
(12) Dhunpath, R., 2003. It's all businesslike now: The corporatisation and professionalisation of NGO in South Africa. International Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Change Management, 3, pp. 1109-1124.
(13) Mueller–Hirth, N., 2010. “South African NGOs and the public sphere: Between popular movements and partners for development”, in Fowler, A. and Malunga, C. (eds.). NGO management: The Earthscan companion. Earthscan: London.
(14) Pratt, B. and Myhrman, T., ‘Improving aid effectiveness: A review of recent initiatives for civil society organisations’, International NCO Training and Resource Centre, May 2009,
(15) Gray, R., Bebbington, J. and Collison, D., 2006. NGOs, civil society and accountability: Making the people accountable to capital. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 19(3), pp. 319-348.
(16) Pratt, B. and Myhrman, T., ‘Improving aid effectiveness: A review of recent initiatives for civil society organisations’, International NCO Training and Resource Centre, May 2009,
(17) Ibid.
(18) Ibid.
(19) ‘Critical perspectives on sustainability of the South African civil society sector’, Charities Aid Foundation Southern Africa, 2012,
(20) Davis, R., ‘The great NGO crisis part II’, The Daily Maverick, 23 October 2012,
(21) ‘Critical perspectives on sustainability of the South African civil society sector’, Charities Aid Foundation Southern Africa, 2012,
(22) Habib, A. and Taylor, R., 1999. South Africa: Anti- apartheid NGO’s in transition. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organisations, 10 (1), pp. 73-82
(23) Pratt, B. and Myhrman, T., ‘Improving aid effectiveness: A review of recent initiatives for civil society organisations’, International NCO Training and Resource Centre, May 2009,
(24) Ibid.
(25) Dhunpath, R., 2003. It's all businesslike now: The corporatisation and professionalisation of NGO in South Africa. International Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Change Management, 3, pp. 1109-1124.
(26) ‘Critical perspectives on sustainability of the South African civil society sector’, Charities Aid Foundation Southern Africa, 2012,
(27) Ibid.
(28) Habib, A. and Taylor, R., 1999. South Africa: Anti- apartheid NGO’s in transition. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organisations, 10 (1), pp. 73-82.
(29) Lombard, A., 2008. The impact of social transformation on the non-government welfare sector and the social work profession. International Journal of Social Welfare, 17(2), pp. 124-131.
(30)   Social development paper
(31) Ibid
(32) Child, K., ‘Big back track on NGOs’, Times Live, 28 January 2013,
(33) Ibid.
(34) Ibid.
(35) Lombard, A., 2008. The impact of social transformation on the non-government welfare sector and the social work profession. International Journal of Social Welfare, 17(2), pp. 124-131
(36) Ibid.
(37) John, V, ‘SADTU warns it will go after NGOs’, Mail & Guardian, 2 November 2012,
(38) Ibid.
(39) Ibid.
(40) Ibid.
(41) Lombard, A., 2008. The impact of social transformation on the non-government welfare sector and the social work profession. International Journal of Social Welfare, 17(2), pp. 124-131.
(42) Wyngaard, R., ‘The South African NPO crisis - time to join hands’, SANGO Pulse, 12 March 2013,
(43) Dhunpath, R., 2003. It's all businesslike now: The corporatisation and professionalisation of NGO in South Africa. International Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Change Management, 3, pp. 1109-1124.
(44) Wyngaard, R., ‘The South African NPO crisis - time to join hands’, SANGO Pulse, 12 March 2013,



Lauren Stuart

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Overview of Planning

Download an Overview of Planning A Toolkit on different aspects of planning for an organisation or project, with useful tools and techniques Strategic Planning. This toolkit provides a model for taking an organisation though a strategic planning process. It covers planning to do strategic planning, covering the background issues that need to inform or direct the strategic planning process, and then defining the strategic framework for the project or organisation activities.

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Program Development.

Part of the National Minority AIDS Council “Organizational Effectiveness Manuals Series”.  The purpose of this manual is to provide a step-by-step outline of the planning process that communities, groups and organizations should follow to develop action plans and successful programs.  Download PDF (3.01MB, 93 p)

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Scaling up Effective Partnerships: A Guide to Working with faith-based organisations in the response to HIV and AIDS

A guide to the response of five world religions to HIV and AIDS and opportunities for collaboration with governments and secular groups is now available. Scaling up effective partnerships: A guide to working with faith-based organisations in the response to HIV and AIDS provides background information and case studies, dispels myths, and gives practical guidance for United Nations staff, government officials, positive people's networks, non-governmental organizations, foundations, and the private sector who want to collaborate with faith-based organizations on joint projects related to HIV and AIDS. Download (1.8Mb)

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Strategic Planning - Handbook for CBOs . IDASA (2006)

All organisations face a world that is rapidly changing. These changes are taking place largely because of technology, which leads to faster contact between people, economic markets, different governments and large corporations. This increasing pace brings benefits, but it also brings disadvantages. Globalisation – as it is called – affects all organisations, including community-based organisations (CBOs), the world over. It is important that the power of a changing world is harnessed to the advantage of people in local communities.
In the ever-increasing pace of the world it is important that you include strategic planning to ensure your survival and growth. This notebook will help you to understand what strategic planning is, how to plan strategically and how to ensure that strategic planning is implemented in your organisation. Download from IDASA website at, under Programmes, Institutional Capacity Building.

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Strategic Planning.

Part of the National Minority AIDS Council “Organizational Effectiveness Manuals Series”.  The purpose of this training manual is to provide learners with the fundamentals of building a successful strategic plan for operating a non profit support organization for AIDS advocacy, prevention and treatment.  Download PDF (2.58MB, 66 p.)  

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The Multisectoral Impact of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic.

The Kaiser Family Foundation (2007). As the number of people living with HIV/AIDS continues to grow, the pandemic has affected many sectors of society, reaching well beyond its direct human toll. This primer explains this concept and summarizes key research assessing impacts to date in many of the worst affected countries, including effects on population structure and demographics, individuals and households, the public and private sectors, health, education, agriculture and food security, and the economy. The research summarized in the primer shows that:
  • HIV/AIDS has lowered the overall life expectancy in some of the hardest hit countries, life expectancies which had been on the rise prior to HIV. It has also affected population growth in some places.
  • Households affected by HIV/AIDS incurred new costs at a time when incomes were compromised due to the illness or death of family members.
  • Firms in the private sector experienced increased costs and reduced productivity related to illness and death among employees.
  • The supply of teachers and health care workers has been affected, which has wider implications for service delivery in the health and education sectors.
  • GDP in some of the worst affected countries has been impacted by HIV. Download PDF (1,342 KB)
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The Roots of the NGO Crisis in South Africa: A Look beyond the Surface


The Roots of the NGO Crisis in South Africa:




In this historical analysis Frank Julie postulates that the roots of the current NGO crisis in South Africa can be located in the shifts in leadership and modes of learning that have occurred within three historical periods. These shifts were accompanied by broader shifts in the power relations in South Africa post 1994 and the witting or unwitting collusion of sections of the NGO leadership to a discourse that was detrimental to the interest of the poor and marginalized. Julie argues that the entry of new leadership generations into the NGO sector and how knowledge, skills and experiences were produced and transferred in the second and third historical periods facilitated this collusion.

“I really like what you are saying, what you do with the issue, I think it’s a great study and well worth the reading by anyone in leadership positions in South Africa. Great work! 

(Allan Kaplan: Co-director of Proteus Initiative and Author of Development Practitioners and Social Process: Artists of the Invisible)

Click here to download a copy.
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Board and Organisational Governance


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A Handbook of NGO Governance 17/05/2013

Principles for good NGO governance

The central and Eastern European Working Group on Nonprofits Governance has been exploring challenges facing nonprofits boards since its founding in 2001. A set of guidelines that could promote a shared regional understanding of good governance was drafted. This has formed the basis of the handbook on NGO Governance.

The handbook is based on the following principles: 

  • NGOs are accountable to their communities 
  • Good governance is a basic form of accountability 
  • Good governance has a formal structure 
  • Good governance involves the separation of governance and government 
  • NGOs are mission-based organisations 
  • NGOs promote the highest professional and ethical standards 
  • NGOs exercise responsible resource management and mobilization 
  • NGOs are responsive to the communities they serve

The hand book serves as a guide to good governance no matter what stage of maturity the organisation or its country’s NGO sector.

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Code of Good Governance.

As a nonprofit organization, we commit ourselves to the practice of good governance principles and to the implementation of these as far as is reasonably possible within our organisation’

We shall do this in the following way;

  •  Through appointing a board that is aware of its responsibilities and its role   through having board members that come from different backgrounds and have a range of skills and experience, with representatives from the communities we serve

  •  Through having transparent and clear objectives and goals that we measure ourselves against regularly

  • Through open and honest accountability by producing regular financial and narrative reports that are available to the public

  • By meeting all legal and statutory requirements expected of us on time and as required

  • By keeping good financial records and being able to account for all funds given to us and for all money spent or invested

  • By treating our staff fairly and having clear and open staff policies

  • By making sure that our board is given all the information it needs to do its task, that it meets regularly, and that members receive training to do their job properly

  • By making sure that no staff or board member benefits unfairly through the awarding of tenders or contracts, hiring of staff, or in any other way that ensures they get unreasonable benefits or preferential treatment,

  • By having a formal conflict of interest policy that is understood by all

  • By making sure that the Executive Director/CEO is appointed, supported and fired by the board alone, that the board has authority over him/her, and that his/her performance is evaluated and reviewed by the board regularly

  • By demonstrating through our actions the values we believe in, showing fairness, discipline, responsibility, accountability, transparency and independence in all that we do.

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Frustration or Pleasure? A Guide to Volunteer Board Service. 26/4/10

Serving on a volunteer board of directors can be a study in frustration or one of the great pleasures of your life.

Joanne Fritz
26 April 2010

Serving on a volunteer board of directors can be a study in frustration or one of the great pleasures of your life.

If you and the organization are not well matched, you may be bored at best and appalled at worst. But when both volunteer board member and organization are in tune with one another the experience can be both personally and professionally rewarding.

Doreen Pendgracs, a veteran board member, has written a friendly guide to board service. Before You Say Yes...A Guide to the Pleasures and Pitfalls of Volunteer Boards (Dundurn Press, 2010) answers your questions, even those you haven't yet thought of.

Expectations and Compatibility

I particularly liked the chapter, "Are We Compatible?" Pendgracs says we should think about why we are being recruited for a board and then make sure that the reasons match what we can or want to provide to a board.

Board members, Pendgracs says, are recruited for several reasons:

  • their profession. There is a range of expertise and talent that most boards need. That is why you're likely to find a lawyer or two, an accountant, a medical professional, or a former teacher, depending on what kind of organization it is.
  • their constituency. An organization might look for someone from a particular geographic location, from a certain group or political party. An organization may need directors who represent particular groups of stakeholders.
  • their bank account. Nonprofits, especially, need money. They are likely to want people on the board who can become donors, and just as important, know people who can become donors.
  • their age. The organization may be looking for young people who bring a fresh perspective or people with experience.
  • their reputation. An organization's board may be attracted to someone who has a noteworthy history or is known for some unique ability or achievement.
  • they know someone on the board. This shouldn't be the only reason one is recruited for a board, but most board members are colleagues, close friends, or neighbors to someone who already serves on the board.

Try to figure out, or simply ask, why you are being recruited. Then make sure that you will be able and willing to fulfill those expectations.

What Should You Know Before Saying Yes to Serving on a Board?

Besides knowing why you are being recruited and thus the board's expectations of you, it is important, according to Pendgracs, to find out some other crucial information, such as:

  • how long is my term?
  • what is the work style of this board? Is it a "working" board where I will be expected to fulfill a role that might be done by paid staff in a larger organization? Is it an advisory board, where one gives input but not much else? Perhaps it's a blend of oversight and hands-on.
  • how and where are meetings held? Are they on site? Across the country, or virtual? How often does the board meet? How is business conducted between meetings? How much time will I be expected to devote to board business?
  • is there a cost associated with attending meetings? Are board members reimbursed for travel expenses? Is there an honorarium?
  • is there an expectation of a specific donation to the organization? Will I be expected to be engaged directly in fundraising?
  • is the organization financially healthy? Is the organization willing to disclose all of its financial information?
  • is there adequate Directors and Officers (D&O) insurance to protect board members in case of a lawsuit or other disaster?
  • does the organization have a good training program for new directors?
  • how formal or informal is the board? Check that against your own preferences and needs.
What Are Your Rights as a Board Member?
Pendgracs wants all potential board members (and the organizations that recruit them) to know that they have certain rights. These include:
  • full and proper training
  • full disclosure before voting on any issue.
  • a safe and secure environment in which to conduct meetings.
  • to insist that the organization engage outside expertise when needed.
  • that the organization carry sufficient general liability and directors and officer insurance to ensure that the organization and the directors are indemnified against risk.

What should you do if you feel uncomfortable or feel that your rights are being violated? "Resign," says Pendgracs. "If you find yourself on a board that is clearly not a good fit, resign -- or at the very least, do not renew your term. It's better than banging your head against the wall."

Before You Say Yes has so much great advice and tips, even though it is a short and easy-to-read book. The book is useful whether you serve on your homeowner's association board, a nonprofit board, your church board, or a business and professionally oriented board. You'll learn board etiquette and responsibilities, about Robert's Rules of Order, how to deal with difficult people, and what a gift board membership can be to you personally and professionally.

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Good Governance & Accountability (CAF SA)

Author: Yvonne Morgan

Organisation: CAF SA

Issues around Good Governance

Question:       What is good governance, and why is it so important for a NPO?

Answer:         Good governance for a NPO means: 

·         being transparent (so that everyone with whom you deal knows what you do and how you do it)
·         being accountable (so that those who are involved with you, either as donors, as employees, as beneficiaries , the community you serve, feel comfortable that you are doing what you say you plan to; being open to advice and criticism, tackling problems rather than ignoring them; being open and honest about income and expenditure and fundraising)
·         running your organization well (keeping good financial records which are made available to anyone who asks, treating employees fairly and legally, measuring the impact/results of what you do to see how well you are meeting your objectives, reporting regularly and fully to donors and communities and in accordance with any legal requirements)

All NPOs need to apply good governance principles in their work in order to be successful.

A code of good governance for non-profit organizations could provide advice on how to deal with the following issues:

The NPO Board

1.         Board composition

·         Hiring and firing - the board needs to have a clear policy on how members are recruited and how they resign or are asked to leave, and how long a member may serve on the board.
·         Conflict of interest - board members should not have a personal interest in any tenders or contracts put out by the NPO, and should be very clear on what constitutes a conflict of interest (XX)
·         Uncompensated - NPO board members should not be paid although their justifiable expenses (for travel, etc) can be met.
·         Diverse character, mix of skills and experience, gender, etc - the board should have members with different skills and experience that can be used to the benefit of the NPO, and the members should be diverse (different cultural, gender mix).
·         Size - each board needs to decide how many members it needs in relation to the NPO’s size and responsibilities

2.         Board responsibilities

·         Planning and evaluation, assess organizational effectiveness - A board needs to make sure that the NPO works as efficiently as possible and stays focused on its aims and objectives.
·         Financial oversight, approve budget and salary structures - The board should receive regular reports on income and expenditure and make sure that budgets are kept to. It should make sure that accounts are audited where necessary and submitted to the board for approval. It should approve the annual budget and salary levels, including increases.
·         Fundraising co-responsibility - Board members should play a major role in raising funds for the NPO, together with the CEO and responsible staff.
·         Setting direction, policy and boundaries - The Board should be responsible for setting the NPO’s aims and objectives through strategic planning. It should decide what the vision and mission (general objectives) of the NPO are and what it needs to do to achieve these.
·         Oversees CEO, support, select, evaluate - The board is responsible for appointing, supporting and evaluating the performance of the CEO.
·         Approving personnel policies - The NPO’s personnel policies on hiring firing, leave, remuneration, training, handling of conflicts, etc should be discussed and approved by the board.
·         Ensuring compliance with legislation and annual reporting - If the NPO is registered with the NPO Directorate, SARS or the Registrar of Companies, the board is responsible for ensuring that the reporting requirements are met in full and on time. This includes the payment of UIF and PAYE on behalf of staff and any other legal obligations.
·         Building and maintaining organisation’s reputation - Board members need to ensure that the NPO’s reputation is protected and developed.
·         Maintaining clear division between role of board and that of CEO - The board needs to make sure that there is a clear understanding of what are the responsibilities and duties of the CEO (the running of the organisation) and what are the board’s own responsibilities (ensuring this is done effectively and legally, and setting the aims and objectives to be achieved by the organisation)

 3.        Board conduct

·         Training of board members - Board members should receive training to ensure they understand and can meet their responsibilities.
·         Set expectations of members - The board should clearly outline for members what their duties and responsibilities are as board members.
·         Establish policies on attendance, participation, noncompliance procedures - The number of board meetings, attendance requirements and penalties for non-attendance or compliance with board policy should be clearly set out.
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Governance Practices of National Non-Profit Bodies and National Networking Organisations in South Africa. 2010

Published by Inyathelo in 2010

The DSD has received an increasing number of requests from national bodies for strategic guidance on a range of governance issues. The DSD views this report as a starting point in addressing the capacity needs of NPOs.

It may be used as a tool to encourage and entrench good governance practices in the sector, not only to enhance functional ability, but also to meet the diverse service delivery needs of broader South African communities.

The study was commissioned by the Department of Social Development and researched by Ricardo Wyngaard and Peter Hendricks whilst employed at Inyathelo - The South African Institute for Advancement.

To download this report, click here (PDF, 4.12 MB, 144 Pg)

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How to Induct Board Members for NPOs (NPO Governance Guides Book 1). 11/09/2015

Published at Amazon

Written by Richardo Wyngaard

How to Induct Non-Profit Board Members is an ebook filled with practical guidelines on how to help organisations to induct new board members to make an effective and lasting contribution to the organization. Boards of not-for-profit organizations can determine the success or failure of the organization. Despite this, boards often don’t spend enough time to induct new board members into the organization. This book is aimed at helping not-for-profit boards to properly induct new board members.

Comments about book:
"A fish rots from the head down. An NPO is as effective as the team of senior volunteers who guide it - the board. Scratch the surface of successful organisations and it is immediately apparent that they are overseen by committed board members, all playing their part effectively and for the right reasons - to serve the targeted beneficiaries. A publication such as Ricardo Wyngaard's Guide to Board Induction, is therefore imperative to ensure that potential board members understand and embrace the responsibilities vested in them - sometimes the saving of lives.''

Dowload free ebook from the Kindle store

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Legal Obligations of Members of Nonprofit Organisation (NPO) Governing Bodies

The purpose of this information handout is to set out some of the important legal obligations that members of NPO governing bodies must adhere to. Some of these obligations are similar and applicable to all NPOs whereas others are different and applicable only to a particular kind of NPO.

This document is attached below (Word Document, 32KB, 8pg)

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Mango’s Top Tips for Financial Governance


This Top Tip covers the financial governance role of the members of your NGO’s governing body (often referred to as ‘the Board’). Click here to download a print copy.

The board has ultimate legal, moral, and financial responsibility for the organisation. Board members therefore represent and protect the interests of the beneficiary communities that their NGO works with, which is why they are often called ‘Trustees’.


Financial governance refers to policies and decisions that affect the financial life and health of organisations. There are five key roles for board members to fulfil this duty:

1. Making sure funds are used to help beneficiaries effectively

  • Making sure the organisation has practical strategies for analysing and responding to social problems
  • Monitoring that the organisation is actually doing a good job, putting its strategy into practice and achieving value-for-money
  • Making sure the organisation has appropriate internal procedures (such as internal controls and accounting systems) to empower front-line staff to make good judgements
  • Regularly checking that internal procedures are followed in practice (eg carrying out internal audits)
  • Taking an active role in internal controls as necessary (eg authorising large payments)
  • Regularly monitoring financial reports, including the income and expenditure statement and the balance sheet
  • Monitoring whether the organisation is being accountable to its beneficiaries (eg presenting financial reports to them).

2. Making sure the organisation has enough funding

  • Approving a realistic annual budget and fundraising plans
  • Monitoring the amount of income received
  • Actively working out how to ensure the organisation will be sustainable, including approving a financing strategy
  • Monitoring relationships with donors (eg if reports are submitted on time)
  • Monitoring fund balances including general reserves (if any fund balances are negative, this could have serious implications for your credibility.)

3. Making sure the organisation has effective senior management

  • Recruiting a Chief Executive with financial management skills for their role (or supporting the Chief Executive to develop these skills)
  • Supporting the Chief Executive to develop a culture of good financial management (eg leading by example and encouraging finance and programme staff to work together)
  • Making sure that the most senior finance manager is a member of the most senior management team
  • Encouraging an open culture that recognises problems and aims to learn from them; and holding senior managers to account for the results of the decisions that they take and the initiatives they launch.

4. Making sure that the organisation operates within the law

  • Understanding the organisation's legal requirements, including Labour laws, Tax laws and Health & Safety legislation
  • Making sure that the management team meets legal requirements (eg paying taxes, filing annual reports)
  • Appointing external auditors, overseeing the audit and approving the audited accounts and annual reports
  • Filing reports with government departments.
5. Making sure the board can handle its responsibilities effectively
  • Appointing a Honorary Treasurer, with specific responsibilities for financial management and the skills to carry them out
  • Making sure that all board members understand their financial management responsibilities and supporting them to develop appropriate skills
  • Making sure there are no conflicts of interest between the organisation’s operations and board members work or business interests
  • Making time at board meetings to discuss the financial management aspect of all major decisions.
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Non-profit Board of Directors Self-Assessment Survey

The following is from the Board Café, a discussion forum and newsletter for Directors of non-profit organizations, but the self-assessment itself is more widely applicable for Directors of any organization.

At a regular physical check-up, the doctor may begin by asking the patient, "How are you feeling?" The answer is important. Although some patients may feel well but have a hidden disease, the patient's own sense of well being is still an important indicator. In a similar way, when a board asks itself, "How do we feel about our board and our organization?" the answer is a useful indicator, if not an error-proof test. An annual poll of board members lets the board get a sense of how its members feel. There are many such surveys, but here's a short one you can try.

Give board members a scale to choose from for each answer, such as 1 - 5, with 1 being Not Confident and 5 being Very Confident. You might also ask your executive director (and other staff who frequently work with the board) to fill out a similar survey, and then use the results of both to kick off a discussion where people reflect on the survey results and establish objectives for the year about board activities.

Board Self-Assesment Syrvey

Please rate your assessment of the Board of Directors' performance on a scale of 1 - 5, with 1 = Not At All Confident, and 5 - Very Confident.

How confident are you that as an effective governing body, the board:
1. Monitors and evaluates the performance of the executive director on a regular basis?
2. Ensures legal compliance with federal, state, and local regulations?
3. Ensures that government contract obligations are fulfilled?
4. Monitors financial performance and projections on a regular basis?
5. Has a strategic vision for the organization?
6. Has adopted an income strategy (that combines contributions, earned income and other revenue) to ensure adequate resources?
7. Has a clear policy on the responsibilities of board members in fundraising?
8. Has adopted a conflict of interest policy that is discussed regularly?
9. Currently contains an appropriate range of expertise and diversity to make it an effective governing body?
10. Regularly assesses its own work?
How confident are you that most or all board members:
11. Understand the mission and purpose of the organization?
12. Are adequately knowledgeable about the organization's programs?
13. Act as ambassadors to the community on behalf of the organization and its constituencies?
14. Follow through on commitments they have made as board members?
15. Understand the role that volunteers play in the organization?
16. Understand the respective roles of the board and staff?
17. Are appropriately involved in board activities?

Please comment:

·     What information-whether about the organization, the field (such as immigration), nonprofit management or nonprofit boards-would you like to get to help you be a better board member?
·     When you joined the board, did you have ideas on how you would help the organization that haven't happened? If so, what ideas?
·     What suggestions/questions do you have for the board chair or the executive director about the board, your own role, or any other aspect of the organization?
·     Would you like the board chair to contact you about getting together?
·     Would you like the executive director to contact you about getting together?


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Roles and Responsibilities of Board Members

This document highlights the basic responsiblities of NGO board members. It describes the two main purposes and the ten most important duties and responsibilities.

Document is attached below (Word document, 28KB; 2pg)

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SOFII’s Guide to Good Governance: Simone Uncensored on Good Boards and Governance

SOFII’s guide to good governance that month by month will build to a must-have manual for your nonprofit board.

Featuring Simone Joyaux, ACFRE

In most countries, a charity has to have a board of trustees. It’s the law. There’s nothing you can do about it, so you might as well make sure it’s a good one.  Because a good board adds value and is vital to ensure that your organisation has the proper procedures and policies in place to manage your charity’s resources effectively. A good board will provide the long-term vision that will protect its reputation and values.

But so many people working in charities complain about their board. This should not be happening!

In this special showcase dedicated to good governance, Simone Joyaux ACFRE will be adding a new article each month that will show you how to make your board the best ever.

In Simone’s own words.

‘Bonjour, dear reader

I wanted to add a personal greeting to this governance reading room.

For those of you who have heard me speak – or read my blogs, books, articles, columns – you know that I’m a bit irreverent. You know that I speak candidly. You know that I like to disturb and agitate.

And, if you’re familiar with my work, you also know that I am definitely NOT a believer in the ‘exceptionalism’ of the United States, my home country. I’m not a promoter of whatever happens in the US. Instead, my French father taught me about the world and different cultures.

Sometimes when I speak or I’m working as a consultant – whether internationally or in some city in the US, whether in a small or large NGO – people say to me, ‘Well, that won’t work here’.

I find that to be a highly limiting statement. I think we’ve all learned that lots of things do work across national boundaries, cultural perspectives, different languages and lifestyles, types and sizes of NGOs…

So I ask you to keep an open mind as you explore the governance approaches in this reading room. Don’t focus on the culture or laws and regulations in your country. Don’t rely on the traditions of your governance structures. Instead, pay attention to the concepts shared here. North America (that’s not just the US!) does have useful experience and expertise in governance and board development. If done well, the principles and practice shared here can make a difference in the health and effectiveness of your NGO.

It’s up to you to figure out how to personalise these concepts for your organisation. It’s up to you to explore how your NGO can apply these principles and practice – modified or not – to strengthen operations and impact.’

Click here to learn more about why you should have a board at all.

And click here to find out how to fire under-performing board members.

Future features

  • Destroy all executive committees.
  • Committees…love them or hate them.
  • What does your governance committee do?
  • The role of the board is pretty darn clear.
  • How effective are your board members?

Watch your SOFII updates for more Simone uncensored coming soon.

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South Africa Companies Act

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New Company ACT 2009

PDF icon New_company_act_2008.pdf770.41 KB

It is hereby notified that the President has assented to the following Act, which is hereby published for general information:– No. 71 of 2008: Companies Act, 2008.

The Minister of Trade and Industry, Dr Rob Davies (MP) has published the draft Companies Regulations, 2010 and rectification notice to the Companies Act, No. 71 of 2008, following the identification of grammatical, technical and other substantive inconsistencies in the Act.

SAIPA Technical Department sent the Regulations to the Technical Committee for comment. After the Regulations were sent to the Committee the Technical Department had a meeting with the Committee together with experts in the field. The experts that attended the meeting were Prof. Walter Geach and Prof. Farouk Cassim. A Submission was drafted by the Technical Committee together with the Experts. The SAIPA comments for the rectification notice was prepared by Mr. Pieter Stassen.

The ACT is attached below: (PDF, 197 pg)



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The Companies Act of 2008. Basic Introduction for Non-Profit Companies

Companies Act, No. 71 of 2008

Introduction: The Companies Act, No. 71 of 2008 (the new Act) was signed into law during April 2009 and came into operation on 01 May 2011. The new Act should notably improve the manner in which companies are incorporated and regulated in South Africa. In the third King Code of Governance Principles, the chairman of the King Committee, Prof. Mervyn E. King, states that: “...perhaps the most important change is incorporation of the common law duties of directors in the (Companies Act of 2008). This is an international trend.” The Act predictably raises the standard of governance.

Please find the document attached below (PDF, 7pg)

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Information Session on the New Companies Act and how it Influences NGO’s

“Within the limits prescribed by law, every organ of state must determine and coordinate the implementation of its policies and measures in a manner designed to promote, support and enhance the capacity of nonprofit organisation to perform their functions.”

Presented by: – a provincial forum of Grantmakers and Corporate Social

Investment Practitioners in the Western Cape.

Speaker: Ricardo Wyngaard (

Report by: Riëtte van der Westhuizen – Breede River Hospice, Robertson, WC

Date: 22 September 2011

A disclaimer from the presenter: “It is a 200 page document being compacted into 90 minutes, so I am only focusing on key issues. The talk is only about the relevance of the new CA on NPO’s and NPC’s.”

Find this document attached below



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Board Development.

Part of the National Minority AIDS Council “Organizational Effectiveness Manuals Series”.  This manual provides non-profit community-based organization board and staff members with new insight and specific tools and resources for building an effective board.  Download PDF (2.87MB, 82 p)

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Board Essentials - What Should all Board Members Know? (BoardSource.)

If you currently serve on a board, or are considering serving on a board, this is a comprehensive list of the essential information you will need to know. This online list contains detailed answers to some frequently asked questions. Visit the website.

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Faith-Based Leadership.

Part of the National Minority AIDS Council “Organizational Effectiveness Manuals Series”.  This manual is designed for leaders in the faith community, both lay and clergy.  Download PDF (2.52MB, 67 p) 

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New Code of Governance for SA Non-profits. 25/07/2012

Wednesday, July 25, 2012
NGO Pulse

After two years of extensive consultation with hundreds of organisations and individuals across the country, The ‘Independent Code of Governance for Non-profit Organisations in South Africa’ is ready to be formally adopted by the civil society sector.

The Independent Code was launched at civil society events in Johannesburg on 25 July 2012 and in Cape Town on 27 July 2012. The code is the first of its kind to be collectively and communally developed by nonprofits themselves, and the first that can be applied to the entire sector of around 150 000 organisations, regardless of size, capacity and purpose. 

The process of formulating an independent code was initiated in August 2010 following widespread recognition of the need for South African nonprofit organisations (NPOs) to adopt their own distinct code rather than be regulated by government or corporate sector codes like King III devised under the auspices of the Institute of Directors.

Inyathelo executive director, Shelagh Gastrow, was part of the Working Group elected and mandated two years ago to draft the NPO Code. She says the large and diverse nonprofit sector in South Africa needed a code that reflected its unique values and principles. “NPOs are a special kind of institution in that they exist primarily to serve the common good and are not motivated or driven by profit-making or self-benefit. Some of the King III principles are completely impractical, unaffordable and unattainable for many nonprofits, and they do not accommodate the distinct principles, values and accountability requirements which go beyond those of the corporate sector,” insists Gastrow.

The 18-page Code of Governance outlines eight 'values' which are of special relevance and concern to the NPO sector, as well as six key leadership principles, and five statutory legal and fiscal principles. Jimmy Gotyana, Working Group member and President of the South African NGO Coalition SANGOCO, says compliance will be aspirational and supportive rather than prescriptive. “Although the Code doesn’t yet have any official or legal status, it is widely supported by the donor community and the sector itself. It brings together views and inputs from previous documents, including the SANGOCO Code of Conduct and Ethics,” explains Gotyana.

NPOs can subscribe by signing the commitment and undertaking to support the values and principles outlined in the Code. The Working Group will keep a register of subscribers and those organisations who sign up will be issued with a special logo or identity stamp to display as a show of support. Colleen du Toit, chief executive officer of Charities Aid Foundation Southern Africa - CAF-SA, says signing up to the Code represents a unique opportunity for the NPO community to publicly recommit themselves to certain core values and principles, including fidelity to purpose, democracy, transparency and accountability.

“The Code will guide Boards and governing bodies on issues such as conflicts of interest and self-dealing as well as the responsibilities to ensure that resources are spent appropriately and in the public interest. There is also a section which affirms the independence and need for impartiality of NPOs,” explains du Toit.

Chief executive officer of the Uthungulu Community Foundation, Chris Mkhize, says the Working Group want to encourage the widest possible support for the Code. “Civil society has collectively created this benchmark for good governance in South Africa. We are confident that it will help our sector to become more effective and continue to earn well-deserved donor support and public confidence,” says Mkhize.

Click here to download 'The Independent Code of Governance for Non-profit Organisations in South Africa.'

The Working Group was nominated at a Civil Society Consultative Forum held in August 2010, and includes Chris Mkhize (Chief Executive Officer, Uthungulu Community Foundation); Shelagh Gastrow (Executive Director, Inyathelo - The South African Institute of Advancement); Colleen du Toit (Chief Executive Officer, Charities Aid Foundation Southern Africa - CAF-SA); Jimmy Gotyana (President, South African National NGO Coalition - SANGOCO); Rajesh Latchman (National Co-ordinator, National Welfare, Social Service and Development Forum) and Richard Rosenthal as legal advisor (Richard Rosenthal Attorneys).

For more information contact:

Shelagh Gastrow
Executive Director
Inyathelo: The South African Institute for Advancement
Mobile: 082 494 2996

Colleen du Toit
Chief Executive Officer
Charities Aid Foundation Southern Africa - CAF-SA
Mobile: 083 646 8469

Chris Mkhize
Chief Executive Officer
Uthungulu Community Foundation
Mobile: 082 692 6405

Jimmy Gotyana
South African National NGO Coalition - SANGOCO
Mobile: 073 615 7665

Sarah Nicklin
Media, Communications, Information and Resources Manager
Inyathelo: The South African Institute for Advancement
Mobile: 073 150 9525

For more about Inyathelo: The South African Institute for Advancement refer to

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Preparing Civil Society Organizations for Leadership.

The Office Depot Foundation. A report on the importance of Civil Society Organizations (CSO) and the challenges they face. The report also offers recommendations for helping the civil society sector build capacity. The report reveals that one of the main problems for these organizations is that funding can be challenging and, too often, CSO leadership gets distracted by fundraising efforts rather than focusing on the needs of clients and beneficiaries. There is a growing consensus that "business-like" practices need to be used (i.e. measuring performance, sophisticated information systems, leadership development programs, etc.) CSOs do have many strengths, including the ability to build strong human networks between people who have a great passion and commitment to the cause. Additionally, these people tend to be very creative in their problem solving skills and have the ability get a lot done with little resources. In order to address some of the challenges for CSOs, there needs to be more accountability and new ways of defining performance excellence.  ((488.80KB; 23pages)

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Roots 10 Organisational Governance

Tearfund produced Roots 10 Organisational Governance. This book aims to help board members and those managing Christian development organisations to consider their different roles and how they can work together to fulfil the organisation’s mission. It includes information on The role of the board; Working with the rest of the organisation; Key responsibilities of the board; Establishing and maintaining a board; Making boards more effective; and Action planning. Download (514K).

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Project Management

Definition: Project management: Planning, monitoring and control of all aspects of a project and the motivation of all those involved in it to achieve the project objectives on time and to the specified cost, quality and performance.

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A Step-by-step Model for Strategic Planning

Strategic Planning Can't Get Any Easier!


Building a strategic plan or engaging in strategic planning can make a difference, particularly when it has a long-term focus and is used as a management tool, rather than simply being an exercise in forms completion. Traditional strategic planning can be broken down into four sequential steps:

-market research
-strategy formulation and planning
-strategy implementation
-results measurement and control

Market research to determine customer needs and identify future market trends is usually the initial step in strategic planning. Managers use the market research to define company mission, goals, and strategic plans for one, three, and five years. Company mission statements become refined by specifying financial, market share, and product mix goals. Implementation generally occurs through official directives and control systems that flow through divisions, departments, sections, and eventually to individuals. Each individual receive a set of objectives that, if achieved, allow the company to attain its mission and goals. Control systems focus on individual outputs or behaviors in the organization. Controlling outputs emphasizes results through management by objectives.

The strategy formulation and planning process consists of the following primary building blocks: assessment of the company's current position identification of the company's desired position evaluation of the strategic gap between the two and the critical issues to be resolved in order to close the gap formulation of strategies and action steps to resolve the critical issues

This website presents a creative model of the strategic panning process. The "strategic plan major steps" links at the top right present the specific steps involved in the planning process. In addition, strategic plan templates and tools are provided so you can develop an excellent strategic plan yourself. The set of strategic plan templates and tools are designed to help you cover all the various elements that go into the development of well thought out and comprehensive strategic plan.

The development of goals is a key step in effective strategic planning. Goals can be defined as a written target of where an organization or an individual wants to be within a specific time frame. But goals must be built on a secure foundation in order to be meaningful and to help the organization achieve its mission. Effective goals have four common characteristics which, when followed, will make achievement more likely and planning more precise. These characteristics are:

1. The goal must be specific. The more specific the goal is, the more likely the organization is to achieve it. 

2. The goal must be measurable. There must be a way to determine whether or not the organization is making progress toward the goal, and there needs to be a way to clearly define the moment when the goal is achieved.

3. The goal must be targeted. Will the goal lead to the desired outcomes? Does the goal accomplish the mission of the organization, or at least contribute meaningfully to the mission?

4. The goal must be time specific. Tying a goal to a deadline is critical. It allows the objectives which flow from the goal to address both direction and speed. Goal achievement is usually based on a specific time frame, and accountability for achieving the goal is significantly enhanced when it is linked to a deadline.

Putting your energies into developing effective goals that link to values, that are measurable, specific, targeted and time sensitive will pay huge dividends as you work to achieve your strategic plan.

In summary, in order to determine where it is going, the organization needs to know exactly where it stands, then determine where it wants to go and how it will get there. The resulting document is called the "strategic plan".


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Four Steps to Fortune: Developing Sustainable NGOs in South Africa. 3/10

This is a four-step guide on developing an NGO

March 2010

Increasingly, corporate and other funders are choosing to support NGOs that are striving to be self-sustaining by focusing on income generation as a core strategy, and not just an aside to their other activities. The reasons for this are complex, reflecting both the state of the world economy and a mindset shift amongst especially corporate funders, in which corporate social investment (CSI) is seen as just that – an investment, one which needs to deliver returns in the medium-to-long term.

In our experience as business developers with a special focus on working with NGOs, community-based and emerging organisations, we recognise that many NGOs struggle to compete in the commercial domain. This is due to a number of factors, including lack of resources, limited access to finance for growth and the absence of the necessary business systems, savvy and skills in-house. However, some NGOs and community-based organisations (CBOs) do manage to transcend these challenges and become successful and sustainable in their own right. How do they do it?

We have come to realise that there are four actions or steps that need to be in place if an emerging business, whether a close corporation or a NGO, Section 21 company or Pty (Ltd), is to thrive in today’s economy. While these four actions are not the only determinants of NGO success, it is well documented that those organisations that pay heed to these crucial areas stand a far higher chance of success in the long-term.

1. Build a strong vision of success (organisational, individual)

Without a strong and decisive vision, an organisation (and an individual) is like a rudderless ship. A clear and heartfelt vision statement is a rallying cry for an organisation, something that everyone from the tea lady to the CEO can understand and believe in. Moreover, a strong vision acts as a guiding star for important strategic decisions, and when it resonates with the heart of the organisation and its people, also supports daily management and clearer long-term thinking.

A vision can encompass different elements of an organisation’s operations, such as social, commercial, etc, or an organisation can have a separate vision for each area of operations.

2. Plan for a long organisational life (100 years)

Many NGOs are founded by a core group of passionate people in response to a need in the community in which they operate or reside. However, the founders often do not plan beyond the immediate rush of needs or place value in strategic planning for long-term growth and sustainability. Planning an organisation beyond the life of the current founder/director is a powerful tool to stimulate thought, and a ‘100-year plan’ is a breathtaking way to eliminate ego and encourage the building of management depth.

Whilst such an extreme long-term plan is not essential, without a strategic framework the organisation will not know where it is going or how to get there. Planning must encompass all the main areas of your organisational operations and should be reviewed regularly.

Amongst other benefits, it serves the following three critical functions:

  • Helps management to retain confidence in the organisation and to see today’s downturns as just a bump in the road.
  • Encourages leaders to see the organisation as bigger than themselves. This supports seamless leadership change – an essential part of organisational longevity and value.
  • Offers a benchmark against which performance can be measured and reviewed.

3. Prepare for growth (replicable systems)

A major shortcoming of many NGOs and community-based business models is that the success or failure of the entity is dependent on one or two strong individuals. When that person is incapacitated, leaves or is absent from the organisation for any length of time, the organisation flounders and often fails.

The solution for seamless and effective functioning is to ensure that the business systems are visible to all, not just one individual; importantly, the systems to manage areas like sales, marketing, HR, production, administration, fundraising and finance need to be clearly defined and documented, so that they can be understood and followed by all employees/volunteers and not just the CEO or Director. This ensures consistency and continuity, and also frees leaders to focus on those areas where their skills add the most value to the organisation. These systems are the building blocks of growth, and essential for sustainability and longevity.

4. Create access to resources (finance, skills, markets)

Whilst many an NGO has been built organically, starting with the efforts of one or two people, to grow rapidly an organisation needs resources – and the faster the growth, the more resources will be needed. As an NGO, the way to succeed is to plan for a project, fundraise and implement. This will ensure that one is not left in a situation where opportunities are lost due to a lack of necessary resources (financial, HR, administration).

Planning for success includes a plan for resourcing the organisation in the future, and for this reason forward-thinking managers will from day-one take financial record-keeping, a good credit rating and proven track-record seriously, ensuring they are a sound investment for potential funders.

Staff resources too require planning, and internal staff development builds team cohesion and staff satisfaction, and is an investment in future fortunes.

There is no doubt that the innovation, tenacity and drive needed to be successful is in abundant supply in both the commercial and developmental sectors in South Africa. Experience shows that a strong organisational vision, effective planning, robust systems and access to resources, leads to greater entrepreneurial confidence and improved results. These four simple steps can help the NGO sector to realise its potential, and make the kind of meaningful contribution it should be making towards economic growth and sustainable job creation.

- Cathy Wijnberg is an entrepreneur with experience in five sectors. She is Director of Fetola Mmoho, a Business Development consultancy that facilitates growth in the small business sector by designing and implementing CSI and business development programmes for NGOs, emerging businesses and community-based enterprises.

- Anton Ressel is an Associate at Fetola Mmoho and has over 15 years experience as an entrepreneur, trainer, business developer and mentor in the emerging business sector.

For more information on Fetola Mmoho, click here  or call 021 – 701 7466.

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Leadership and Management Toolkit. 22/3/12

A source for reliable and relevant information about leadership and management in health


All over the world, people working in health face numerous and complex challenges in order to produce results and provide care. Health sector reform, changing donor priorities, shifting client needs, and new technologies require that managers at all levels play a primary role in meeting the needs of their organization and clients. Through improved leadership and management, people working in public, private, and nongovernmental organizations can face these challenges with more confidence and lead their teams to effect significant changes in health.

The resources in this toolkit were carefully selected to eliminate the need to conduct extensive searches on multiple sites. Health policy makers, program managers, service providers, information officers, and others will find valuable resources on this site. The toolkit provides evidence-based guidance and tools to update, expand, or develop leadership and management skills in health managers and service provision programs.

To browse the content of this toolkit, browse each of these links: (The toolkit is organized to align with the World Health Organization's (WHO) health system strengthening building blocks)

- Medicines, Vaccines, and Technologies (Logistics and Pharmaceuticals)
- Service Delivery and Demand
- General Management

All six components must work together to deliver health services effectively and efficiently. The exact contribution of each building block to health outcomes depends on the problem being addressed and the services that need to be delivered by the health system and used by clients.

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Mainstreaming HIV into Tearfund’s Operational Relief Programmes. 2008

Published by Tearfund 2008

This case study documents the pilot project. It describes the process of mainstreaming and the challenges faced, in order to share learning and recommendations with other agencies working in this field. Mainstreaming HIV is a process that enables relief workers to strengthen the way in which they address the causes and consequences of HIV through adapting and improving both their existing work and their workplace practices. It requires an understanding of the impact of HIV in communities, and adapting development and humanitarian programmes to respond effectively.

-Key Learning

Download this document here (PDF, 304.26 KB, 20pg)

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Managing the Project Cycle

Each stage has its own characteristics

Published by NetworkLearning May 2009

About: The four phases of PCM: assessment and planning, implementation and monitoring, evaluation, and adaptation. Each stage has its own characteristics and requires specific knowledge and skills.

Go to this page to download the document (PDF, 214.17KB, 17pg)

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NGO Self-Assessment through a SWOT Exercise

Published by Network Learning 2008

About: Analysing the capacity of an NGO is a useful way of improving effectiveness and impact. One approach is using the SWOT (Strengths, Weakness, Threats and Opportunities) analysis a strategic planning tool which highlights the strengths and weakness within an NGO and the external factors which pose a threat or an opportunity for the NGO.

This step by step manual provides advice for an NGO to conduct a SWOT analysis of its capacities. The four steps include:

-Step 1: Analyse your NGO’s Capacity > page 2

-Step 2: Do the SWOT Exercise > page 5

-Step 3: Make a Strategic Plan > page 8

-Step 4: Implement, Monitor, Evaluate

Download this document here(PDF, 811.37 KB, 13pg)

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Nonprofit Social Media Policy Workbook. 4/12

Published by Idealware in partnership with Balance Interactive

April 2012

A good social media policy will provide clear guidelines as to what staff should and shouldn’t do when posting and interacting with the community on a day-to-day basis. Your organization can create a policy to help guide your whole staff simply by thinking about how you would like to make use of social media. This workbook is designed to help you, as an organization, ask the important questions about social media, and take the next steps to growing a social culture.
-1. What does a social media policy mean to you?
-2. Your organization’s social media values
-3. Social media roles: who does what?
-4. What should you say online?
-5. Monitoring policy
-6. Responding to negative comments
-7. Responding to positive and neutral comments
-8. Privacy and permissions
-9. Thinking through copyright and attribution
-10. Drawing the line between personal and professional
-Writing up your policy
-About the authors
-Consultant directory

Download this document here (PDF, 2.72MB, 37pg)

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ProjectMinds’ Quick Guide to Project Management

Provides clear, friendly step-by-step instructions to the art of project management

Published by ProjectMinds

By Manjeet Sinh

About: With an emphasis on simplicity, the book provides clear, friendly step-by-step instructions to the art of project management inspired from the PMI methodology. Whether you are a senior manager or someone who has never been on a project, you will learn the tools and techniques that help you to direct a project.

Download this resource here(PDF, 271.35KB, 23pg)

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The Voluntary Independent Code of Governance and Values for Nonprofit Organisations in South Africa. A Draft. 2012

Distributed by Inyathelo 2012

Subtitle: The Independent Code.

Abstract: This is the first draft of a proposed Voluntary Independent Code of Governance and Values for NPOs in South Africa. It has been initiated by a group of NPOs, and is intended to recognise their wide diversity of size, purpose, resources, and capacity. As an initial draft, comment, criticism, and suggestions are invited and encouraged. It is intended that this Code should be in the public domain, and that it should not “belong” to any one or more organisations. Whatever steps may be needed to secure the integrity of the text, it should be made freely available to all NPOs and to all sectors of society to whom NPOs are accountable. This Independent Code is entirely voluntary and does not have any official or legal status, nor is it intended that it should be imposed or enforced. However, it is widely supported by the donor community, and has the full backing of the Non-Profit Organisations Directorate


-1. Introduction
-2. Nonprofit governance
-3. Commitment and undertaking

Download this document here (PDF, MB, 19pg)

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A More Excellent Way.

Microsoft Office document icon AMoreExcellentWay.doc26 KB

Corinthians 13 re-interpreted by Edgar Stoesz, former chairman of Habitat for Humanity International and former director of MCC South America. This document warns about some of the challenges and dangers of organisation management and organisation development. Download Word document below (86KB)

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A Roadmap to Quality: An e-Learning Manual for Implementing Total Quality Management.

(UNIDO), 2007. A Roadmap to Quality is a manual for implementing Total Quality Management (TQM) throughout a company. Its 20 units with over 160 short texts provide clear practical guidelines for the full range of management activities – from managing company policy to keeping the workplace clean and tidy. Download PDF (380 pp. 3.8 MB)

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Bare-Foot Guide To Working With Organisations and Social Change

"This is a practical, do-it-yourself guide for leaders and facilitators wanting to help organisations to function and to develop in more healthy, human and effective ways as they strive to make their contributions to a more humane society. It's purpose is to help stimulate and enrich the practice of anyone supporting organisations and social movements in their challenges of working, learning, growing and changing to meet the needs of our complex world. Although it is aimed at leaders and facilitators of civil society organisations, we hope it will be useful to anyone interested in fostering healthy human organisation in any sphere of life."

- Chapter 1 - Shaping our world
- Chapter 2 - Inside Out
- Chapter 3 - People to People
- Chapter 4 - Through the Looking Glass
- Chapter 5 - Stepping into the Unknown
- Chapter 6 - Finding a home for change
- Chapter 7 - Staying alive to change

 Download PDF here. Warning: the document is 21.4MB.

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CBO Management - Handbook for CBOs IDASA (2006)

Community-based organisations (CBOs) play an important and relevant role in providing services at the local level. They work in a variety of different fields, such as education, health, the rights of the disabled, gender issues, etc. Wise management of the organisation can contribute significantly to ensuring the effectiveness of the work that it does.

This notebook will provide basic and comprehensive definitions of what organisations are, what a CBO is and what management is. The definitions will help you to understand the concept of CBO management.
To fully understand the concept, the notebook will highlight management skills, different types of managers and the main functions of managers. It also will examine different topics that need to be managed to ensure the effectiveness of the organisation, such as tasks, time, meetings, human resources, employee performance, etc. Download from IDASA website at, under Programmes, Institutional Capacity Building.

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Capacity Building for Local NGO’s: A Guidance Manual for Good Practice. (Progressio).

This comprehensive manual on capacity building for local non-governmental organisations can be used for training and development or by local NGOs as a self-help manual. Each chapter is available to download separately:

  • The basics

  • Organisational governance

  • Strategic planning

  • Managing finances

  • Managing people

  • Managing projects

  • Office administration

  • Publicity and fundraising

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Civil Society Landscape. 10/7/2013

NGO Pulse

Shelagh Gastrow discusses the threats and opportunities for nonprofit organisations (NPOs) and how a common ground between NPOs and corporate funders can be explored

‘Multiple sites of power are crucial to a democracy and a vibrant civil society provides just that. It is estimated that there are over 100 000 organisations that make up civil society. Some are membership-based and can therefore rightfully claim to represent their own communities. Others are established by individuals and groups who are passionate about a specific cause and they create a mechanism to work in that field. Although these organisations are not membership-based, they still have enormous value because they exist.’

If we are to look at the main areas that emerge in this hive of activity, they tend to develop into welfare and service delivery on the one hand, and advocacy and policy development on the other.

The government has for some time objected to civil society organisations (CSOs) with the critique that nobody has voted for these organisations and that they are therefore unaccountable. The Constitution defends our right to free association and freedom of expression. Any individual has the right to hold the state to account as does a group, an organisation, a movement, a society or any other structure. And besides, civil society is not only there to check the state but also to keep a watchful eye on the corporate sector. Civil society organisations have been very effective at exposing businesses that exploit child labour, or are guilty of unfair labour practice, or environmental degradation, or price-fixing and excessive profit making.

In any event, the accusation about non-governmental organisations (NGOs) being unaccountable and unrepresentative is a non-starter. Civil society is the space where citizens have the right, and the freedom, to organise with like-minded people around particular issues or to work for particular socio-political, economic and/or cultural causes. CSOs are accountable - to their members, beneficiaries, donors and communities. It is political parties that are failing to account for where their funds come from, or where they have invested their party money. They also do not seem to feel the need to tell us when their cadres benefit from private and other deals.

Funding of the Civil Society Sector

There has been substantial media coverage about a funding crisis in the nonprofit sector and, for many organisations, this is a reality.

  • A diversity of donors;
  • Some form of income generation in-line with the organisation’s objectives;
  • Building of reserves and possibly; and
  • Purchasing their own premises.

Income generation implies a mixed model and in this respect many organisations can become effective social enterprises without losing the values that drive the nonprofit community.

Inyathelo’s understands that fundraising is not fair – it is not about the best idea or the best proposal, but it is about building personal relationships based on trust. Trust is no doubt the underlying contract between a donor and a grantee, but it does not happen without engagement. Relationships cannot only be on paper. The growing demand for detailed reporting including outputs, outcomes and impact has something to do with current donor practice where trust is reduced and relationships are curtailed. The building of real, trusting partnerships requires face to face engagement. It is imperative that nonprofits understand this as much as the donor community.

Inyathelo believes that there are resources available to the civil society sector, but organisations and their leaders need to attract these resources, rather than chase money. Organisations need to put in place effective advancement practice including good governance, quality leadership, good financial management, functioning programmes that deliver on their objectives - monitoring and evaluation; they need to be visible and let the world know what they think and do; they need to be clear where they are going, what they want to achieve and how they will do it and they cannot rely on proposal writing as the first port of call. This standard way of raising money is probably the least effective and I am always amazed that people continue with a practice that does not work. There is no silver bullet - the bottom line is that organisational leadership has to build relationships and this takes time and effort.

The Lotteries and the National Development Agency (NDA)

These two agencies were established with an expressed objective to support and serve the civil society sector, but have been notorious in their failure to do so. The NDA was for years embroiled in various charges of corruption by its senior management and the lotteries were plagued by administrative bungling and a lack of transparency in respect of the Distribution Agencies that report to the Minister of Trade and Industry. The NDA appears to have contracted into its shell, paying out a significant percentage of its annual allocation to its internal functions, while appearing to be running its own programmes rather than supporting civil society. There are attempts to review the lotteries and a new legislation is awaiting comment.

Relationship with Government

This takes us to the issue which is the relationship between civil society and government. During the anti-apartheid struggle, CSOs played a major role in the political shift. This included the hundreds of organisations that formed the backbone of the United Democratic Front, organisations such as the Black Sash and Idasa that helped to break the political log-jam. Civil society organisations played a role in drafting the constitution, in implementing the National Peace Accord and in promoting the Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP). However, over time, as government began to find its feet, civil society found itself on the outside merely serving as a partner with government in the context of poverty alleviation. What does poverty alleviation mean? In my view, it merely means making poverty bearable, it is not about changing a system to get rid of poverty. This led government and quasi government structures such as the NDA and the Lotteries to see CSOs, especially NGOs, as merely service providers to the poor and even worse, as a nuisance.

There are many organisations that provide services to the poor (it is allegedly estimated that 30 percent of social services are provided by the nonprofit sector) and they have become major recipients of government money, leading to a heavy dependency on government largesse. This has led to a question relating to the independence of these organisations whether they align their programmes with government priorities, or stick to their own objectives, advocate on behalf of their beneficiaries; and can they criticize the hand that feeds them?

A key question to ask of government is whether it is meeting its mandate? The existing Nonprofit Organisations (NPOs) Act was promulgated in 1997 and it contains a clause which reads:

Every organ of state must determine and coordinate the implementation of its policies and measures in a manner designated to promote, support and enhance the capacity of NPOs to perform their functions.

Certainly, this clause has largely been ignored.

The Act also provided for the establishment of an NPO Directorate within the Department of Social Development to offer support services to the sector. However, the Directorate was severely under resourced and it has had huge difficulties in servicing the sector. Worse was the mass deregistration of organisations that took place at the end of 2012 and early in 2013 – apparently a new efficient computer system implanted into a dysfunctional entity.

It is of common knowledge that expectations relating to government service delivery have not been met. As a result, various new, dynamic and activist organisational structures within communities and beyond have emerged and most of them rely on volunteer membership for their impact. These are generally termed social movements.

At the same time, there are other more structured organisations that are involved in issues relating to systemic change such as educational improvement, refugee rights, gender issues, corruption and political rights. These organisations, often termed social justice organisations, sometimes attract government ire. Their skills base can be quite sophisticated and this enables them to participate in legislative processes such as making submissions to portfolio committees in parliament, organising campaigns including raising awareness through the media, undertaking effective research and even going to court. There has been on-going sniping on the part of government about the role of such organisations. Higher Education Minister Blade Nzimande accused some non-governmental organisations (NGOs) as being part of an ‘ideological third force’. A statement issued by the ad hoc Committee on the Protection of State Information Bill in 2012, following the Bill’s passing, accused civil society organisations of ‘half-truths, distorted conflations and mischievous political deportment’. Some NGOs have been vilified and accused of being ‘foreign spies’. South African Democratic Teachers Union (SADTU) also described some NGOs as ‘imperialist neoliberal forces” and threateningly asserted that the union would not accept a situation in which they could be used as “proxies to pursue certain political agendas’.

There is therefore an uneasy relationship between civil society and government. Government needs organisations to deliver services, but on its own terms and within the parameters of its own agenda. Those who aren’t directly involved in service delivery are often seen as a threat, rather than a potential partner.

NPO Governance

The publication of King III presented the nonprofit sector with a number of challenges as it was written for the corporate sector which is based on different values and functions differently. Perhaps the most obvious difference between the two sectors is that the corporate sector exists to achieve the maximum amount of profit possible, whereas the NPO sector, by definition has to channel any resources it generates towards the benefit of the organisation and the work that it does. But there are other differences too. Directors of an NPO freely and voluntary give their time to fulfil an altruistic purpose; in the corporate sector, directors do not freely give their time, and expect the highest possible remuneration for their investment. As well illustrated in the world over - South Africa being no exception – such remuneration is sometimes astronomical in its largesse.

King III focused on the new Companies Act, but the majority of NPOs are trusts and voluntary associations. Trusts and voluntary associations have their own body of law including aspects of common law as well as guidance from international principle and practice, especially taking into account the degree of funding of South African NPOs that comes from abroad. Most especially though, we felt that the requirements of King III were too overwhelming for the capacity of most civil society organisations. This did not mean that they were incompetent. An article in the Financial Mail of 14 October 2011 entitled ‘Strangled by Rules’ explained that local companies were overwhelmed by the requirements of King III and that governance issues were crowding out all other items on board agendas.

In essence, King III served as a catalyst, forcing the nonprofit sector to look inward at its own governance practices. This is particularly pertinent considering the work NPOs do. Very often, this involves the provision of public services (the building of schools, or providing emergency access to medicine in natural disasters). Governance of any organisation and its funding are critical to donor and beneficiary confidence.

There was therefore an urgent need for the South African nonprofit sector to explore the development of a Good Governance Code or Charter that spoke to, among others, the specific governance and risk management needs of NPOs. Such a Code needed to be aware of the multi-layered and multi-textured nature of NPOs and it needed to serve as a way of building confidence in the nonprofit sector. Following a two-year consultative process with hundreds of nonprofits, a Working Group produced the Independent Code of Governance for NPOs in South Africa. This can be found on the website and organisations can subscribe to the Code through the website. We currently have over 50 organisations that have publicly subscribed, and donors can measure their governance performance against this commitment. Over the next three years we will be promoting this Code across the country to ensure that it has currency and can stand as the key governance document for the sector.

This Code does not purport to be a comprehensive statement of the law and it acknowledges the existence of other Codes such as King III. It is basically a statement of values, principles and recommended practice.

Relationships with Business

There are two components that impact on civil society’s relationship with South African business, mainly through CSI operations. These are the Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) codes and the capacity to measure delivery and impact. Business is not generally altruistic, although there are some key exceptions to the rule. I am not opposed to the for-profit sector: it is critical to the development of the economy; it provides work and produces the products needed. However, in terms of values, the corporate sector is extractive by nature: it will extract what it can from its employees, its customers, its suppliers etc. The nonprofit sector is about giving back to society.

Are there therefore real opportunities for partnership between civil society and business? In many instances there will be common ground in terms of what people are trying to achieve, although they might approach the problem from different angles. For example, an organisation might be working with matriculants to prepare them for university. This could be supported by a company as it desperately needs good, talented, qualified graduates and it understands that the seed bed of such future employees (our school system) is currently barely functioning and that the add-on provided by educational NGOs has value. There are a range of opportunities for corporates and civil society organisations to partner, but there has to be respect for different values and agendas.

The BEE Codes have also had an impact on such partnerships. Whilst there might have been some level of altruism previously, this has been wiped out on a significant scale by the need to tick boxes to gain BEE points. There are some companies that no longer have any values, but only request proposals from organisations that can prove the 75 percent black beneficiary targets. So, for example, you might find a company supporting a pro-abortion organisation and an anti-abortion organisation, both of which have 75 percent black beneficiaries, but with totally divergent values. While the imperative to transform society is totally understood, the reality of this requirement has had an impact on the interface between civil society and the corporate sector in terms of a common value base.

The issue of social return on investment has also created confusion. Although it is important and correct for organisations to report on how funds were spent, whether they delivered on their programmes and what the impact of the programmes were, there is the utopian idea that somehow business practice can save the world. In response, the following quote from Michael Edwards in his book Small Change is appropriate.

“Expecting price competition, the profit motive, short-term deliverables, and supply-chain control to bring about a world of compassion and solidarity is, to say the least, a little strange. You would not use a typewriter to plough a field or a tractor to write a book, so why use markets where different principles apply?”

Social change is complex and messy, organisations need to navigate society, social structures, interest groups and differing agendas in order to achieve consensus. The process alone can take months or years, before any actual work takes place. When Jonathan Schrire was encouraged to build a school in Vrygrond, a disadvantaged area in Cape Town, two members of his committee were killed before the school was built. It took enormous courage and persistence to deliver and complete this incredibly successful project.

How does one measure this? Does this process not matter in terms of return on investment, but only that the school was built, how many pupils attend and what their final matric results are?

According to James Taylor of the Community Development Resource Agency, we have approached developmental work in a linear, mechanistic and instrumental way. This is effective in resolving simple and even complicated problems where there is a direct and predictable cause and effect relationship between input, output and outcome. But we are starting to understand that this framework could thwart our capacity to address the multifaceted, complicated systemic problems that we face.

There are huge opportunities for the corporate sector to work with civil society, but there should be clear guidelines for good partnerships between the two. For corporate, these include:

  • Ensure that objectives dovetail and that corporate are not forcing an organisation to change course to where it does not want to go or where it does not have the skills sets to go. This will invariably end in a sad way;
  • Respect partner’s knowledge in its field of endeavour and in the community in which it works;
  • While sharing skills can be enormously helpful, there is no purpose in trying to micro-manage a partner organisation. Besides being bad manners, it can undermine what both parties are trying to achieve;
  • Understand that social change takes time, Immediate impact in the social sphere is unlikely;
  • Make a contribution to overheads, organisations cannot function without overheads. Companies would not dream of running without offices, equipment, marketing and staff, So goes the NGO. Each project has to pay its way in the organisation including oversight, governance, rental, supplies, equipment etc;
  • Make a contribution towards building the capacity of partner organisations, no business would dream of eliminating staff training and resources from its budget, so goes the NGO;
  • Do not be judgmental about costs such as salaries, there is no reason why people running NGOs should live on a pittance. They are professionals in their own right and are partners with the corporate sector. Do not revert to the charitable paradigm and reduce them to beggars, it is humiliating to use the power game because the funds come from the corporate entity. These organisations are enabling the corporate sector to undertake interventions that they simply cannot do themselves;
  • Be clear about how you exit a relationship. A warning is not an exit strategy, companies could open doors to other donors; provide training and capacity building in fundraising and development; contribute towards an endowment. If you have a long term relationship, it is unethical to stop support suddenly;
  • Make a medium to long term commitment. Organisations cannot make guarantees that their work will endure if they need to continually resubmit requests for support on an annual basis. This insecurity leads to staff losses, and an inability to plan for the future;
  • Do your due diligence, before investing in an organisation, ensure that it is sustainable, that it has the skills required to undertake its projects and that you are confident and have trust in its leadership. This means that companies need to know their partners and that this is not just a paper relationship. Meet with the Director, visit their offices, the state of their working environment will tell you immediately if the organisation is well managed or not; and
  • Understand that reserve funds and endowments are a good thing. The argument that an organisation has a reserve and therefore does not require funding is spurious. What this actually means is that the organisation will be there to carry out its objectives if things go wrong financially. Because nonprofit donor income is subject to the whims of donors, it is good practice to build a reserve to see the organisation through transitions. Donors who object to an organisation’s financial success are operating in a patronising, charitable paradigm – expecting professionalism, yet abandoning their own business principles in the case of nonprofit organisations.

For nonprofits there are also some basic rules:

  • Do not assume that a donor is obliged to fund you, you need to attract funds from partners that share your objectives and hopefully values;
  • Build relationships based on trust and be transparent, this takes time and your Executive Director needs to find this time;
  • Ensure that your objectives dovetail with the objectives of your corporate partner and that any outcome indicators are agreed;
  • Do not be swayed into mission drift because there is money involved;
  • Ensure that you have a good paper trail and can account for all funds;
  • Put effective thanking and reporting systems in place;
  • Stick to your contracts and report on time, both narrative and financial;
  • Recognise your corporate partner, both privately and publicly. Starting with a thank you letter, this can extend to a recognition event, a certificate of recognition, the naming of space, a plaque on a wall and publicity in your annual report and website;
  • Bring your partner into the organisation - share your achievements;
  • Continually monitor your programmes and projects, find the places you can improve and share this knowledge with your donor. Be proactive about evaluations - engage with the donor about what they would like to know in the process and share what you would like to learn;
  • Inform your partner immediately if things go wrong, you do not want them to hear about this from other sources. Be open and honest - we are all human; and
  • Understand that your champion in the company, such as the corporate social investment (CSI) officer, is accountable to his/her board. Your failures reflect on him/her. It is therefore important to maintain a transparent relationship and to answer questions that need to be asked.

If I have a message for business and its relationships with nonprofits, it is to move away from a mechanistic way of grant-making and to start looking at the systemic issues that impact on our society and therefore impact on business. Although social justice organisations involve some risk for a company, particularly in relation to government, systemic change will often create the milieu in which the company can do better business. This is long term thinking and is not so pretty in an annual report, but it is often better for the country.   Without imagination you will continue to support change without change, you will only make poverty bearable, but won’t provide for the future that we need in South Africa. Take off the linear matrix and the blinkers and start to engage in the very messy, muddled and complex world in which we live.

- Inyathelo Executive Director Shelagh Gastrow was invited to address the 6th annual ‘Making CSI Matter’ conference in Johannesburg at the end of May 2013. The conference was aimed at people who are grappling with corporate social investment (CSI) and development practice, and who want to refresh their thinking. This speech first appeared on the Inyathelo website.


Shelagh Gastrow


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Constructing a Logical Framework.

Many proposal and project plans require a Logical Framework from organisations. This online resource provides information about:


    • Advantages of the Logical Framework
    • Basic principles
    • Main matrix of a Logical Framework
    • Summary contents of a Logical Framework
    • Other resources



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Directions For SMCS Work With Organisational Development & Capacity Building

(2002) Swedish Mission Council. The international community is experiencing rapid change and organisations that want to retain their legitimacy and continue to contribute to positive changes in society must have the ability to adjust to changing circumstances. This document outlines a direction for SMC´s work in capacity building and organisational development with its member organisations and in turn their partner organisations in their individual contexts. Download PDF (154 KB)

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Health Communicator's Social Media Toolkit

Published by CDC July 2011

In this guide, you will find information to help you get started using so-cial media - from developing governance to determining which channels best meet your communication objectives to creating a social media strategy. You will also learn about popular channels you can incorporate into your plan, such as blogs, video-sharing sites, mobile applications and RSS feeds. This toolkit is in-tended for a beginner audience, although some viewers with an intermediate level may find parts of the toolkit useful.


-Social Media Introduction
-Social Media Tools
-Social Media Campaign Example
-More Social Media Resources
-Social Media Communications Strategy Worksheet
-Social Media Evaluation Worksheet

Download this toolkit here (PDF, 2.42 MB, 59 pg)

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How to Build a Good Small NGO


ownload How to Build a Good Small NGO A manual that uses theory and a series of exercises and examples to help the reader gain a better understanding of how to build a good small NGO

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Learning for Change: Principles and practices of learning organisations.

2002 (Bruce Britton; Swedish Mission Council). This book was commissioned by SMC as a way of further developing an understanding of organisational learning in church-related organisations involved in international development. It builds on an earlier paper written by the author, Bruce Britton, in 1998 (Britton, 1998) and includes examples of how practice and thinking in the field of organisational learning have evolved since then. Download PDF (64 pages, 282 KB).

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MAKER - Managers taking Action based on Knowledge and Effective use of resources to achieve Results

Managers of larger projects might find useful information in this WHO website for health care managers. Includes information on:

  • Concepts, guidance and tools to help you decide how best to use resources, or to solve problems

  • Country experiences in building management and leadership capacity or improving health services delivery

  • Contributions from managers like you

  • Links to other management related websites

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Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS in Development and Humanitarian Programmes. Sue Holden, Oxfam Skills & Practice.

AIDS has radically changed the contexts in which development and humanitarian organisations operate, and now they need to adapt their policies and practice accordingly. Sue Holden explains the concept of 'mainstreaming' HIV/AIDS in simple language, with practical guidelines for applying the approach in a wide range of sectors. Download PDF (677 KB).

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NGO Support toolkit

A comprehensive NGO Support toolkit is available online from the International HIV/AIDS Alliance.

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Programme Management Best Practice.


Save the Children Fund (2006) Successful programmes are based on clear set of programme principles, and are implemented and managed in a disciplined manner with strong research, planning and budgeting, monitoring and impact analysis. Produced by the International Save the Children Alliance, this manual builds on a long history of successful programme activity, and contains guidelines on best practice in governance, strong management and effective programme work. Although aimed at Alliance members specifically and those working on children-focused programmes more generally, its lessons are useful in a wider context.
The manual is meant to help build capacity and professionalism and serve as a resource to guide in the planning, implementation and evaluation of successful programmes. Its three principal sections are as follows:
  • 1. Programme principles: these should reflect the organisation's overall mission.
  • 2. Programme methodologies: these can include:
    • direct support
    • working in partnership or in collaboration (with governments, civil society, children and child organisations, networks and coalitions)
    • knowledge dissemination and capacity building
    • advocacy and awareness raising
    • research and analysis
    • support to or direct involvement in monitoring processes
  • 3. Programme management guidelines using the project management cycle as a framework. Phases consist of:
    • Research
    • Planning
    • Implementation, monitoring and evaluation
    • Impact analysis
  • At the end of the manual, a Benchmarks section contains an easy-to-use checklist. Download PDF (23p., 174.26 KB)
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Programme Planning Materials and Training Resources: A Compendium

This guide offers programme planning materials, training resources, tools, and documented intervention experiences from throughout the world. Each resource contains contact information and a listing of elements addressed, including promotion of protective behaviors, community mobilization, and health education. The materials, most published since 2000, address cultural appropriateness, gender equity, healthy sexuality, and youth rights. Co-developed by Safe Youth Worldwide & UNFPA. Download (836.09 KB).

Headings include:

  • Preface

  • Acknowledgements

  • About Safe Youth Worldwide

  • The Essential Elements Framework

  • About the Compendium

  • Findings

  • How to Use this Compendium

  • Document Summaries

  • Checklists, Guidelines and Standards

  • Handbooks

  • Reports

  • Tool Kits and Other Documents

  • Training Manuals, Cirricula, and Methodologies

  • Bibliography

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Project Cycle Management CBO Training Toolkit

Core Initiative. The overall aim of the toolkit is to build the confidence and skills required by CBOs to develop and manage their HIV/AIDS projects more systematically.Download (840KB)

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Project Cycle Management for Community-Based Organisations responding to HIV/AIDS

CARE; International AIDS Alliance, 2006. This training toolkit aims to build the confidence and skills required by community-based organisations (CBOs) to develop and manage their HIV/AIDS projects more systematically through project cycle management. While the toolkit was developed for use by facilitators involved in the training of these CBOs, it can also be used by NGOs/CBOs themselves to implement training within their organisations.
The toolkit describes a workshop scenario providing a range of participatory activities which can be carried out to build skills. The participatory activities outlined for each topic include instructions for the activity, facilitators notes, suggestions for time allocation and room layout; and a list of materials required. The toolkit contains an example workshop schedule, handouts for specific activities, and participatory community assessment tools. Download PDF ( 840.46KB, 95p)

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Project Cycle Management.

Local Livelihoods (2006) Spreckley, F. Project Cycle Management (PCM) is a framework within which to identify and clarify problems and then design, plan, implement, monitor and evaluate projects to overcome them. This PMC toolkit is a practical workbook on how to design, develop, manage, monitor and evaluate regeneration and development projects. It provides best practice techniques for all aspects of project management that are supported by diagrams, templates and illustrations. The toolkit can be used as a workbook for those who wish to apply any of the techniques and exercises in their work, and as a study guide for students, on the job learners and participants of training courses.
The author addresses issues surrounding formulation of PCM including preparing and formulating the logical framework, carrying out budget plans and project proposals. Appraisals and commitment are then considered with the toolkit providing details on project elegibility, relevance and feasibility. The toolkit also guides the reader through various implementation issues and evaluation, and aims to:
  • explain project cycle management and how it can be used as a framework for organising regeneration and development programmes
  • explain how to build a logical framework to help stakeholders discuss all the implications of what they are trying to do and build robust projects
  • introduce a range of participatory development methods as a basic skills toolkit for development workers
  • show how to engage with stakeholders in building shared approaches to regeneration and development
    explain how to identify mainstreaming opportunities and design project benefits to be sustained
    explain how to use quality assurance to guide project development, appraise projects and monitor and evaluate project implementation
  • Download PDF (108p, 926.26 KB)
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Project Management - Handbook for CBOs IDASA (2005)

There are increasing opportunities for community-based organisations (CBOs) to sustain themselves. They can do this by accessing funding or by tendering through local government structures. However, CBOs are expected to be able to manage the finances and the deliverables in a professional manner, which also ensures that projects are successfully implemented.
To achieve this most effectively it is necessary to improve the management of projects. The principles of project management might be familiar to CBOs because many are practising some of these principles on a daily basis already, but it is useful to have a disciplined framework, with tools and techniques to enhance the existing capacity in CBOs. It also helps CBOs if there is always sufficient documentation of these processes.
Download PDF (1173 KB) from IDASA website at, under Programmes, Institutional Capacity Building.

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Project Management Guidebook

ThoughtWare (2003) This guidebook, produced by a commercial company specialising in project management tools, provides a practical approach to what many consider a complex process: the management of projects. The document is designed to simplify the management processes required to manage a project successfully from end to end. It defines project management in simple terms and provides the reader with all of the documentation tools required to make projects a success.
The authors detail how to initiate, plan, execute and close a project whilst managing time, cost, quality, staff, suppliers, equipment and customers. The four project management phases are outlined and an explanation of which document templates to use within each phase to complete a project successfully is provided. This guidebook is suitable for all project sizes, types and industries. A standardized approach to achieving success is provided for small, medium or large projects. Download pdf (21p, 417.39 KB)

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Reflections On Current Thinking On Spirituality In Organisations

2004 (Rick James; Swedish Mission Council.) Spirituality is becoming part of mainstream organisational theory and practice. It is no longer viewed as the preserve of a ‘new age’ or ‘fundamentalist’ fringe. In the last five years management journals, conferences, academic syllabuses and popular writers have increasingly focused on the spiritual dimension to organisations and change. This paper seeks to explore current management thinking and literature in this area, aiming to initiate considered and inclusive discussion of questions such as: - To what extent is spirituality part of mainstream management thinking today? -Why is it moving into the mainstream? -What do different people mean by the term ‘spirituality’? -What are some of the key elements of spiritually-based organisations? - What are the implications for NGO capacity building. Download PDF (405KB).

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Roots 5. Project Cycle Management (PCM)

Project cycle management (PCM) is the term given to the process of planning and managing projects, programmes and organisations. It is used widely in the business sector and is increasingly being used by development organisations. Development projects sometimes fail because they are badly planned and do not take account of some important factors, particularly the needs and views of stakeholders. PCM is based around a project cycle, which ensures that all aspects of projects are considered. A central value of the PCM method is that aspects of the project are reconsidered throughout the project cycle to ensure that any changes which have occurred are included in the project design. As a result, projects are more likely to be successful and sustainable. Throughout the book we talk about using project cycle management for projects because this is probably the main way in which PCM will be used. However, all of the tools can be used just as effectively for planning programmes and managing and developing organisations. Download (PDF, 913K)

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Strengthening Organisations North And South

(2000) Swedish Mission Council. This document is the result of a capacity building process which aimed to :- To deepen the understanding of organisations and how they work and develop.- To examine different approaches to strengthening church -related organisations (North and South)involved in development and the implications this has for one´s own organisation and work. Download PDF (254 KB)

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Sustaining Grassroots Community-Based Programs: A Toolkit for Community- and Faith-Based Service Providers.

(U. S. Department of Health and Human Services). Although focussing on organisations providing servicesv for individuals and families affected by substance abuse and mental health disorders, the principles apply to any organisation. Contents include:


  • Introduction
  • Organizational Assessment and Readiness
  • Effective Marketing Strategies
  • Financial Management
  • Sustainability Strategies: Funds Development and Fund Raising
  • Results-Oriented Evaluations
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Tool Box for Building Strong and Healthy Community Organisations Working in HIV/AIDS and Sexual Health. Part Two.

This toolkit assists in all theoretical aspects of building community organisations. Download

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Tools for Knowledge and Learning: A Guide for Development and Humanitarian Organisations.

Overseas Development Institute (ODI) Download (820KB) This toolkit includes 30 tools and techniques divided into 5 categories: i) Strategy Development; ii) Management Techniques; iii) Collaboration Mechanisms; iv) Knowledge Sharing and Learning Processes; and v) Knowledge Capture and Storage. The toolkit is designed to present entry points and references to the wide range of tools and methods that have been used to facilitate improved knowledge and learning in the development and humanitarian sectors.

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Financial Management

Money is the lifeblood of NGOs. They have to use it carefully to achieve their goals. Financial management provides managers and trustees with the tools to do this.

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Budgets and Financial Planning


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(CIVICUS) This toolkit provides guidelines on how to go about developing and monitoring a budget. It will help you with an overall organisational budget as well as with a budget for a specific project. It includes tools for estimating costs as well as tips for ensuring that your budgets meet the needs of your project or organisation. Download word document (30p; 209 KB)

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Financial Management for NGOs


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A Guide to Finance for Social Enterprises in South Africa. 2011

Published by GreaterCapital 2011

ISBN: 978-92-2-124609-1

Subtitle: "Researched, compiled and written by GreaterCapital." The Guide to Finance for Social Enterprises is a collaborative effort between GreaterCapital, a subsidiary of the GreaterGood group, and the International Labour Organization (ILO). GreaterCapital is a social enterprise providing strategic impact investment advice that seeks to link sustainable, impactful organizations to capital, and to maximise the positive effect that they have on their beneficiaries. The ILO is the tripartite UN agency that brings together governments, employers and workers of its member states in common action to promote decent work throughout the world.

-1. Introduction
-2. What kind of enterprise are you?
-3. Should you be looking for outside finance?
-4. What type of finance should you be looking for?
-5. Who offers finance?
-6. How to position yourself for successful financing
-7. Glossary, bibliography and resource

Download this document here (PDF, 2.26MB, 60 pg)

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Developing a Financing Strategy

Published by Civicus

The toolkit will help you to develop a process for ensuring the financial sustainability of your organisation. We believe that thinking through a financing strategy for your organisation in a systematic way, and writing that strategy up as a basic reference document for the organisation, will help you towards gaining financial sustainability. If you use this toolkit in conjunction with other toolkits, you will increase the capacity of your organisation to plan for sustainability, and to generate the funds needed.

Download this document here (285.82 KB, PDF, 57 pg)

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Mango's Guide to Financial Management for NGOs.

Mango's Guide to Financial Management for NGOs provides practical advice to everyone working with NGOs, to help them use their funds effectively to meet beneficiaries' real needs. It is based on a real understanding of what NGOs do, from Mango's experience of working with NGOs around the world, in the field and in head office.
The Guide has five sections:
  1. Introduction - key responsibilities for trustees, senior managers, finance staff and donors. Principles of financial management for NGOs.
  2. Getting the Basics Right - the building blocks: keeping accounts, financial planning, financial monitoring and maintaining control. Also: working with beneficiaries, managing audits and legal requirements.
  3. Advanced Issues - financial sustainability, working with donors, giving and receiving grants, accountability (including cost-effectiveness) and overseeing controls.
  4. What NGOs Do - a short introduction to what NGOs do and what this means for managing their work. The important implications for managing NGOs are summed up as two golden rules.
  5. Resources - practical resources available to download and use, including Mango's highly-rated training manual, a complete financial system and Mango's Health Check, available in eight different languages.


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Sample Financial Reports


 There are three essential financial reports in any organization: the Balance Sheet, the Income Statement, and the Statement of Cash Flows. This section is covered in the technical note found above.

A Balance Sheet is always divided into two parts. The top half shows the organization's assets (what the organization owns and what others owe the organization), while the bottom half shows the organization's liabilities and equity (what the organization owes and has to pay out). The top and the bottom halves are always in balance; that is, they add up to the same amount. An example of a balance sheet can be found here.

An Income Statement records all the revenue your organization earns and the expenses it incurs over a predetermined period of time. By adding all the revenue your organization receives from selling goods or services and then subtracting the total cost of operating your organization, the income statement shows net profit.  An example of an income statement can be found here.  

The Statement of Cash Flows monitors the flow of cash in and out of your organization over a period of time. This statement also identifies the sources and uses of your organization's cash. An example of a statement of cash flows can be found here.


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Financial Control and Accountability.

CIVICUS. This toolkit provides an introduction for the non-financial manager or leader on controlling the finances of the organisation in such a way that the organisation can be held financially accountable. Download
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Financial Management - Handbook for CBOs

(2005) IDASA. To look after the past, present and future finances of your organisation means that financial management involves three different, but connected, jobs. They are:
- Financial planning (future); 
- Financial control (present); and 
- Financial monitoring (past).

To make these three jobs more understandable, this notebook starts with the broad concepts and then takes a look at each of the different jobs in more detail. It is, however, important to remember that the main goal of this notebook is to give a general idea of what financial management is and why it is important to a business or organisation. If possible, however, it is always advisable for an organisation to employ a qualified bookkeeper, either part-time or full-time, who already has a good understanding of the principles and responsibilities of financial management. 

Download PDF (1150KB) from IDASA website at, under Programmes, Institutional Capacity Building.

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Fiscal Management.

 Part of the National Minority AIDS Council “Organizational Effectiveness Manuals Series”.  The purpose of this training manual is to present the fundamentals and practical aspects of fiscal management.  Download PDF(2.49MB, 59 p) 

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Practical Financial Management for NGOs

Download Practical Financial Management for NGOs A Comprehensive Course handbook orientated towards getting the basics right.

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Funding and Fundraising


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21 "How-to" Resources on Fundraising for Community-Based Organizations. 23/01/2015

Published by Aidscompetence
Written by Jennifer Lentfer
8 December 2014

Fundraising Resources for Community-Based Organizations


  1. Basic Fund-Raising for Small NGOs/Civil Society in the Developing W..., from Coyote Communications
  2. Core Costs Funding Strategies, from BOND’s Guidance Notes Series
  3. Developing a Financing Strategy, from CIVICUS
  4. A Few Good Online Tools for Friend-to-Friend Fundraising
  5. Find Partners is a helpful organization supporting local community-based organizations in resource mobilization in Uganda and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa.
  6. Funding 101: the art of giving and receiving grants, discussion on Guardian UK Global Development Professionals Network
  7. Fundraising, from the Southern African NGO Network (SANGONeT)
  8. Fundraising Guide, from Tearfund’s ROOTS series (Chapter 4 on characteristics of different funding sources is really useful.)
  9. Fundraising Guide for Women’s Community-Based Organizations, from Women Thrive Worldwide
  10. Fundraising Handbook, from Global Fund for Women
  11. Fundraising & Proposal Writing, from IDASA’s Handbook Series for Community-Based Organizations
  12. is an online initiative, working for the sustainability of NGOs by increasing their access to donors, resources and skills.
  13. or
  14. Guide to Key Resources for Funding Peace and Conflict Workfrom the Peace & Collaborative Development Network. See also this article from Craig Zelizer, “12 Key Steps to Obtaining Funding for On the Ground Work
  15. How To Guides from the The Resource Alliance, Building Fundraising Capacity Worldwide
  16. The NGO Café Fundraising Strategies
  17. Raising Funds and Mobilising Resources for HIV/AIDS: A Toolkit to S..., from the International HIV/AIDS Alliance
  18. The Resource Alliance, a global network for building fundraising capacity and inspiring philanthropy worldwide
  19. The SOFII Collection, the Showcase of Fundraising Innovation & Inspiration, “aims to be the most comprehensive, best organised, and most inspiring collection of fundraising related content from around the world.”
  20. Tips on Local Resource Mobilization, from the World Bank’s Small Grants Program
  21. Wikifund, from the International Fundraising Consultancy
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67 Fundraising and Marketing Tips for NPOs. 17/07/2015

Published at NGO pulse
15 July 2015

Trialogue, a consultancy focusing on issues of corporate social responsibility, shares 67 fundraising and marketing tips for NPOs in celebration of Nelson Mandela Day.

Since its establishment in 2009, the global Mandela Day movement has inspired people across the world to contribute at least 67 minutes of their time towards changing the world for the better. As we play our part, we also want to celebrate the organisations that spend every day doing good.

Trialogue is a consultancy that focuses on issues of corporate social responsibility. We host regular forums with corporates and nonprofit organisations (NPOs), and our much-anticipated annual CSI conference facilitates in-depth engagement between the sectors. Drawing from the insights we have gained from our vantage point, understanding the needs and demands of both sectors, we have rounded up 67 fundraising and marketing tips for NPOs, in celebration of Mandela Day.


  1. Diversify your funding base with dedicated strategies for high net worth donors, public mass donors, and corporates. Individual funders should be further segmented based on their level and type of giving.
  2. Have a clear strategy for maintaining each donor type, not a ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach.
  3. Appoint a driver – while it is good for all staff members to contribute to fundraising, there should be someone dedicated to bringing in donors.
  4. Ensure that the organisation’s leadership holds the primary relationship with your funding partners.
  5. Share your vision with partners and potential funders. Nothing sells better than passion and commitment.
  6. Make sure that your organisation is visible to funders by signing up to the Trialogue Funders Guide to social development in South Africa, by 31 July 2015.
  7. Identify well-known and reputable brand ambassadors. This relationship should not just be about their popularity - be sure that your philosophies are aligned as well.
  8. Take time to research and understand the Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment (BBBEE Codes), and the opportunities these may present.
  9. Companies’ corporate social investment (CSI) budgets may not be the only possible source of revenue. Consider how you can tap into marketing budgets, skills budgets or other elements of the BBBEE scorecard.
  10. Explore whether companies who want to support your organisation, but do not have the money to do so, could possibly contribute professional skills and expertise in kind. 
  11. Enquire about companies’ redundant assets that could either be donated or purchased at minimal cost, to help meet your organisation’s needs.
  12. Ask corporates to fund your organisation holistically, emphasising what it takes to function sustainably, and packaging your administration and marketing costs within your total value proposition.
  13. Ensure the tick-box qualifying criteria are properly met. Your application will not get through the screening process if it does not comply with funder requirements. 
  14. Ensure that you can provide corporate funders with documentation that enables them to fully claim SED points on their BBBEE scorecard. Make this process easy for the companies by ensuring that the points claimed are irrefutable. 
  15. Adopt a targeted approach, investing time in understanding funding patterns and agendas of target companies and customising your pitch, rather than flooding the market with generic funding requests.
  16. It is important to maintain your organisation’s current fundraising efforts, but remember to also stay open to innovations in the funding arena, so that your organisation will be prepared for the next frontier. 


  1. Your reputation as a credible partner rests on your ability to deliver. Ensure that your marketing is underpinned with credible stories of success.
  2. Be transparent. Organisations that publish their financials and account for their work gain the confidence of funders.
  3. Share challenges as well as successes. We all know development is not easy. Those that tell it like it is rather than only showing their good news will gain greater trust.
  4. Make sure you have a credible monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework and do the monitoring wherever you can to ensure you are able to share metrics on progress and outcomes with your funders.
  5. Engage your funders about what feedback they need so that you can provide one comprehensive report, rather than different feedback reports for different funders.
  6. Ask your leading funders to share the cost of developing a robust M&E framework. After all, it is in their interests that this be done.
  7. Invite external experts to reviews your methods. Not only will this allow you to refine your approach, but it will build trust as well.
  8. Get involved with others who work in your sector. There is more to gain through collaboration than operating in isolation.
  9. Write up case studies of your work, highlighting both achievements and challenges. Do not restrict these to anecdotal stories or isolated examples of success.
  10. Understand and communicate your relationship with government. You are more likely to attract funding if you support the work of government rather than function as an alternative solution.
  11. Consider how you can leverage your impact, for example by sharing lead practice and influencing others in the developmental sector, or replicating initiatives that work.


  1. It can feel like a lot of work for smaller amounts of money, but if you develop a strong and memorable campaign, it can be as valuable for building your brand as it can be for raising funds.
  2. Be relentless about the marketing.
  3. Find a strong hook - think creatively to get people to join the campaign.
  4. It does not have to be complicated - remember how trendy those simple yellow Livestrong armbands became?
  5. Steer clear of false marketing – remember how quickly those yellow Livestrong armbands faded?
  6. Set targets - for both your overall campaigns and for the charity champions/brand ambassadors involved.
  7. Make sure that your organisation’s campaign is asking for something as tangible as possible – be clear about what it costs per beneficiary to your project, for example. This motivates champions and backers to reach the target.

Marketing and Branding 

  1. Start with building your brand by strengthening it in the communities and amongst the people that your organisation already works with.
  2. Ensure that your brand is recognisable and memorable.
  3. Stand the chance to win a full-page, professionally designed advertisement worth R42 000 – participate in this research survey by Monday, 27 July 2015, to assist in creating valuable benchmarks and trends in the social investment and development arena.
  4. Information about your organisation should be coherent and aligned across various marketing material and platforms. For example, the language and tone may be adapted, but your organisation’s brochure should say the same thing as your website and social media pages.
  5. Embrace the tagline - sum up what your organisation does in one line, to make your organisation’s work feel accessible and relevant to the general public.
  6. Make sure that your logo is user-friendly, not just for your own organisation, but for partners. Have it available in different formats, including JPEG, PNG and GIFF, high resolution and low resolution, full colour, black and white, and transparent (for printing on darker backgrounds). The more places your logo is featured, the more brand recognition your organisation could earn.
  7. With #41 in mind, ensure that your logo is not misrepresented and that you control which project partners have access to it and on what terms.
  8. Pull up a banner at all your events and always have brochures and business cards on hand.

Social Media 

  1. It is here to stay. In fact, social media platforms will continue to diversify as user popularity grows. Instead of newspapers, this is where many social media users are consuming their news from. So, if your organisation has news that it wants to share with the general public, it is worth developing a strong social media presence.
  2. This does not mean that you should be on all social media platforms. Consider the nature of the content that your organisation will be sharing, and which social media platforms will best support those.
  3. Facebook and Twitter are still the most popular platforms among South African NPOs.
  4. Facebook should be updated daily, at least.
  5. Since Twitter moves much faster, it may require a little more attention. The more Tweets you are able to send out per day, the better.
  6. If you are pressed for time and resources, use a social media management application, such as Hootsuite, to help schedule your organisation’s posts.
  7. Your posts are more likely to be spotted between 7am and 9am, as people are getting settled at their desks, scrolling through their newsfeeds over their morning cuppa. Lunchtime, between 12pm and 2pm is also a popular time.
  8. Follow peer organisations to help build a network of collaboration, rather than competition.
  9. A ‘tweet’ or ‘tag’ can be more attention-grabbing than a standard email. If your organisation has been trying to make contact with someone, with no success, try their social media channels.
  10. Tweet live from your organisation’s events to ensure that those who cannot be there can still participate in the exchanges.
  11. Cross-market - share links to your organisation’s social media pages on other platforms, including your organisation’s website, newsletter, staff email signatures and business cards, and any other marketing material, such as banners and brochures.
  12. Do not be controversial for the sake of it. If you are going to start a debate on social media, be sure that your organisation has the capacity to fully and insightfully engage the debate.
  13. Words are wonderful, but images really enliven posts. The more colourful and thought-provoking, the better.
  14. Stock photos are fine, but original photos that authentically depict your organisation’s work is much better.
  15. Get as many staff members and supporters to Tweet about your organisation from their own accounts - the more people tweeting at or tagging your organisation, the more familiar your brand will become.
  16. Have fun! Use social media posts to push you to get creative and excited anew about the work that you do.

Media Relations 

  1. If you read, watch or hear interesting media that’s relevant to your organisation’s work, save the name/s of the journalist/s responsible for the piece, so that you can share information about your organisation’s work with them. It may get your organisation direct media attention, or it may help to deepen the way an issue is presented in future.
  2. Deepen existing media conversations or debates by publishing opinion or insight articles.
  3. If articles are too daunting or demanding, shorter letters to the editors of newspapers could be an easier alternative for expressing views.
  4. A quick Google search of any media house will pull up contact details that you can use to help research how best to get your piece published.
  5. Media releases can help to spread the word about your organisation’s position on a controversial issue, an event you may be hosting or an initiative you may want to encourage public participation in.
  6. If your media release is about a specific project, be sure to include information about the ‘who’, ‘what’, ‘where’, ‘when’, ‘why’ and ‘how’ of the initiative. The last line of your media release should include the contact information of your organisation’s spokesperson. 
  7. Invite media to your events. If it gets coverage, the topic will remain relevant well after the event has ended.
  8. Review the news regularly to find links between current affairs and the ongoing work that your organisation does, to help keep up to date with possible linkages and opportunities.

Bonus tip! 

  1. Congratulate yourself for making it all the way down this list, and be sure to visit regularly, to stay abreast of CSI developments and insights.
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Five reasons Donors Give for not funding local NGOs directly. 02/12/2015

Published at

19 November 2015

Only about 1% of all official aid, and an even smaller portion of humanitarian assistance, goes directly to the global south.

Unpublished research into private foundations suggests that they, too, channel the majority of their funding through what I call "fundermediaries" in the global north. While more resources do find their way eventually to southern actors, this "trickle down" approach creates inefficiencies and undermines agency.

Our annual State of Civil Society Report this year focused on resourcing for civil society. In the weeks leading up to its publication, and in the weeks since, I have been asking almost every donor I meet why they seem unable, or unwilling, to fund the frontline directly. Here are the top five reasons they give me:

  1. Lots of southern and smaller CSOs do not have the capacity to fill in all our forms, let alone spend our money effectively.
  2. We do not have the administrative capacity to give smaller amounts of money.
  3. We need to channel money through a few, trusted partners so that we can manage risk and comply with our own rules.
  4. We have strict anti-terror and anti-money laundering rules that make giving directly difficult.
  5. We are under domestic political pressure to fund through CSOs in our home country.

As one may expect, these reasons are less than well received by southern organisations, as evidenced publicly recently when the gloves came off in a heated exchange in Geneva.

The good news is that the more thoughtful donors are trying to address these issues. For example, USAid under Raj Shah committed to a localisation strategy (although the agency is apparently struggling to meet its targets) and in private philanthropy organisations like the Stars Foundation have called on others to "Fund the front line". Meanwhile, the UK’s Department for International Development (DFID) is currently conducting a wide-ranging civil society partnership review that includes looking at more direct funding of southern CSOs, although DFID’s FAQ response on this question clearly aims to continue representing the needs of UK CSOs.

For me, the issue here goes beyond the question of "development impact" – we know local actors offer more efficient and often more sustainable solutions. Instead, it comes down to how prepared donors and others are to disrupt the current development model; how prepared we all are to smash the "charitable industrial complex", as Peter Buffet once called it.

Part of the problem is that the science of delivery has been strangling the art of social transformation. Driven by the need to measure results, donors have helped to nurture a cadre of contracted civil society organisations, who are excellent at "accounts-ability" but less good at disruptive change.

Naturally, this kind of funding has favoured larger, professionalised CSOs. Most have been founded and are based in the north; they have the capacity to plan, deliver and monitor, regurgitate the latest jargon, prepare a plausible logframe, and be visible in high-level development forums.

Meanwhile, smaller and southern-based CSOs, particularly change-seeking bodies, have struggled to find resources to support their work. Domestic state funding is often not an option, or, when it is available is deeply problematic, and southern private foundations are few and far between, especially those prepared to fund advocacy or social change.

Donors need to accept that one of the roles of civil society is to challenge power

All of this has served to deep-freeze existing power imbalances: global civil society now seems to be lagging behind the global economic and geopolitical changes that have started to disperse power and influence. As I have argued elsewhere, we need to work out how to build a more multi-polar civil society.

Even the relatively little money that does go to southern civil society is being increasingly regulated or restricted by governments worried about foreign funding of dissent.

Unless donors are brave enough to begin funding in a different way, that fundamentally reconfigures current structures and systems, then we will continue to undermine our efforts towards sustainable development unnecessarily.

Donors need to fund diversity; they need to make available a diversity of funding sources to a diversity of civil society forms and actions at different levels, over different time periods and with different levels of risk. Some donors need to support core funding of CSOs, particularly change-seeking CSOs in the global south. They also need to devolve resource decision-making as close to the ground as is feasible.

The good news is, there are different ways in which civil society "fundermediaries" can help: by disbursing smaller grants to smaller organisations in the global north (as Forum Syd does in Sweden), by using regional mechanisms (like the African Women’s Development Fund) or by tapping into community foundations close to the ground (like the grantees of the Global Fund for Community Foundations.

Donors also need to acknowledge that funding decisions always have politics embedded in them; they’re always about more than just efficiency and effectiveness. Donors need to accept that one of the roles of civil society is to ask difficult questions and to challenge power; they then need to ask themselves, are they enabling that role?

In the longer-term, increasing direct funding to southern-based and smaller CSOs will be a necessary (albeit not sufficient) condition for a range of things that need to happen: whether it is allowing communities to determine their own solutions to their own problems, or building effective institutions that can survive and thrive long after the "development" project is over, or sending positive signals to inspire and reassure local funders.

Most importantly, if we are to push back effectively and sustainably on threats to civic space, we need to build a cadre of confident local actors that have a diverse, and reasonably secure, resource base to work from. A community of weak CSOs, reliant on sub-grants and contracts, will hardly deliver the changes we need.

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Resource Mobilization I-Kit is live. 01/10/2015

Published at Campaign Archive

The Health Communication Capacity Collaborative is pleased to announce the launch of its latest Implementation Kit (I-Kit), focused on Resource Mobilization.

Resource mobilization refers to all activities involved in securing new and additional financial, human and material resources for your organization, as well as making better use of, and maximizing, existing resources.

This I-Kit was created to guide organizations that seek to broaden their funding base to reflect a hybrid of revenue streams including fees from clients, funding from donors, corporate sponsors, public sector subsidies, charitable contributions and other funding or investment mechanisms. This will allow for a diversification of risk and not threaten the effective implementation of critical programs that improve the lives of their beneficiaries.

Taking you through each step of the resource mobilization process, this I-Kit describes the fundamental elements of a strategic plan as the source of new business opportunities, to the detailed phases of drafting a proposal for a donor, writing a business plan and preparing some smaller business development documents, such as a business opportunity brief.

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11 Questions Every Donor Asks (Or Should). 24/5/10

Everything from a fundraiser’s job title to patience and timing come into play when soliciting a gift of any size.

The Non Profit Times

By Kate Rogers
24 May 2010

No fundraiser has a crystal ball. Although, it would be nice. Everything from a fundraiser’s job title to patience and timing all come into play when soliciting a gift of any size.

During the Association of Fundraising Professionals’ recent annual conference in Baltimore, Md., Harvey McKinnon, CFRE and president of Harvey McKinnon Associates in Ontario, Canada, gave fundraisers the burning questions donors have when being solicited, and just how to handle them.

1. Why Me? McKinnon said all donors want to understand why they are being pinpointed for giving, and should be made to feel they can inspire others by contributing. “Your job is to figure out how you can break into their circle of concern,” he said. “Show you care, make sure you have met. That personal meeting makes an enormous difference with people.”

2. Why are you asking me? The actual person who is doing the ask is extremely important in this situation, McKinnon said. Those who are higher up in the organization will be more successful than their subordinates, or those who have not been with the charity for as long. “Some organizations will give people titles to make them sound more senior than they are,” McKinnon said. “Trust is something that is partly earned because they see your passion and your commitment to the cause.”

3. Do I respect you? Donors always want to know about the person who is doing the ask, and if they are able to pick up on visual cues. If a fundraiser has done volunteering, or has proved they are committed to the community or a cause themselves, it gives them more clout with prospective donors. “Preparing answers to those types of questions (from donors) is critical,” he said. “Integrity helps to gain respect, and there is a real pressure.”

4. How much do you want? Many times, a donor will not give what they think they should give, but instead, will give what you ask them to give, McKinnon said. Also, those who are wealthy often are approached by charities, so it is best to seek major gifts from donors who have their priorities straight. “You want them to give enough that they still feel good,” he said. “Most donors make their largest gift between the seventh and ninth donation. People have a great giving capacity, way more than we think. Over time, you learn what is appropriate and what’s not.”

5. Why your organization? Fundraisers have to distinguish their groups from other organizations to show donating will be impactful. This can be done though showing authentic visuals such as videos or photos, he said. “If you can’t define what your unique selling proposition is as an organization, you have a big problem,” McKinnon said. “The practical successes of your organization need to be shown. This is critically important.”

6. How will my gift make a difference? Giving allows the donor the opportunity to feel great joy, and charities should tap into that, McKinnon said. Show the donor they have the chance to make a substantial difference by giving.

7. Is there an urgency to make a gift? Many donors respond well to deadlines, McKinnon said, therefore they should be made and followed. “People like deadlines. It refocuses the passion and why you are doing what you are doing,” he said.

8. How easy is it to give? A donor will be interested in contributing if you make it easy for them to do so. Catering to the donor audience, and taking out unnecessary steps will bring money in more quickly.

9. How will I be treated? Good copy makes a huge difference in inspiring to give, McKinnon said. Potential donors want to feel appreciated when engaging with an organization. “A personal touch from the people at the back end of the organization helps a great deal,” he said. “Job hopping is really tragic from a donor relations standpoint,” because it does not allow for continued communication.

10. How will you measure results? Honesty with donors is the best policy. A charity must be truthful about where the money is going, and whether or not it was used for something that proved to be successful, McKinnon said. “One really effective way to do this is to talk about your organization’s successes and failures,” he said, “and what you have learned from them.”

11. Will I have a say in how you use my money? Allowing a donor to feel included in the process, and giving them time to make the decision is necessary. Give them information about how the money is being used while it is happening, not just the results. 

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18 Ideas to Avoid a Funding Crisis! 8/2/10

It may only need about 2-3 hours per week over 3 months

By Frank Julie
Published 8 February 2010

We live in difficult times with most NGO’s and CBO’s trapped in the grip of a severe financial crisis. The causes are varied. Some organizations think that using fundraising consultants will get them out of this crisis. Here is what your organization can do without having to use a consultant. And you don’t even have to be an expert to do all this. It may only need about 2-3 hours per week over 3 months to develop all the ideas and then to maintain it. Get a serious team together who believe in what you do and get them to work on some if not all of these ideas

Download this here(6pg)

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20 Top Corporate Fundraising Tips for Fundraisers

The Resource Alliance

"I want to share with fundraisers worldwide a short list of subjective tips on corporate fundraising, which is based on my 11 years spent at Levi Strauss working as a corporate donor. This list is very much what I covered during my recent workshop titled - ‘Put Yourself in Their Shoes’ at the 9th IWRM held in Bangalore, India this June, and is based upon the questions participants raised throughout the event. I hope this proves useful for fundraisers involved with Corporate Fundraising worldwide."
Author Zoltan Valcsicsak

1. First of all, think twice before getting into corporate fundraising. Why? Because it can be hard work with questionable results. Bear in mind: globally corporate support represents only around 4% of the total income of charities. And companies on average give away only 1% of their precious profit. Still interested? Keep reading.

2. Know yourself. No, it’s not philosophy. It’s very practical advice about knowing your organisation’s values, work, impact, and limits. Knowing means valuing and believing. You will not convince companies to work with you unless you fully believe you bring value to the table. And you do, believe me.

3. Know the company. But know them well. Put yourself in their shoes (or trousers _ ) What are their products, markets, and brands? Who are their consumers and what are their concerns? Who are their employees, senior managers, owners and competitors? Where are they located and what are their concerns? What is the Corporate Responsibility inspiration and track record of the company? What are their weaknesses in this field? What do they have to give to the community – apart from cash? Would you buy their products?

4. Think beyond cash. Companies don’t like giving away cash. Especially nowadays. Don’t forget they have been created to make cash. However, they have lots of other resources and sometimes you and they don’t think about using them in the partnership. Why not? Products, services, employees’ time and expertise, office space, used machines, business networks, popular brands, access to consumers and employees, dreams of CEOs to change the world. I’m sure you can continue the list. Take your list with you when meeting with companies.

5. Focus on common values, instead of looking at what divides the company and your organisation. Ask the question: How can we create partnership to use resources of the company and our organisation to achieve common goals?

6. Find the right person at the company and transform him/her into your advocate, story teller and warrior within the company. It can be the CSR Manager, the head of the company’s foundation, a marketing manager, a PR person, the CEO’s assistant or the CEO him/herself. Doesn’t matter unless they shape and make the decision you are interested in. Meet them face-to-face and help them sell your cause to others at the company, including, of course, the Finance Manager

7. Dare to be different when competing with other NGOs to grab the attention of companies. I have received thousands of grant requests in my life, but I still remember the ones that were different in some way. Either with the idea or the language or the project presentation. Or simply because they used humor or nicely surprised me.

8. Tell your story combining hard facts with emotions. Facts and figures are critical, but sometimes people from nonprofits become too business-like when meeting with companies. Don’t fall into this trap. Be emotional. Be human. They are, too. And they will respond. However, don’t try to shock them with painting all the miseries of the world on their wall. Then they will simply stop listening.

9. Most people at businesses love making decisions and taking actions. Use this capacity of them. Involve them in decision making and give them things to do. They will love it. Given that it doesn’t require too much time.

10. Always bring partnership options to the table. Be flexible when discussing the project to fund, be open for their advice, but negotiate hard and know your interests and limits when contracting.

11. Be specific when you’re asked what you want. Never say you would be happy with anything they can give.

12. Listen to your heart when it comes to ethical questions. Would you be proud of telling about your corporate partnership to your friends, Mom or children? If not, don’t get into it.

13. Be honest and transparent with your corporate partners. Under-promise and overdeliver. Tell them if you experience difficulties with the project and propose to renegotiate. Invite them to your office for a coffee with the staff. Hopefully, they will treat you in the same way.

14. Communicate, communicate, and communicate. First of all, with your contact person. S/he has to be updated and regularly fed with information and visual materials on the supported program. Secondly, with your staff and your clients. Thirdly, with the media. Use the company’s resources to spread the word and create media buzz.

15. Have a good website which is regularly updated and provides the right amount of information. I don’t mean a fancy site. Just a clear, working one.

16. Give a K.I.S.S. to each communication with your corporate partner. Keep It Short and Simple. Test it with a friend who has no clue about what your organisation does (it could also be a board member _ ) If your friend understands your grant report, everybody will.

17. Be patient and build your partnership step by step. But don’t devote more energy and resources to this area than income from it deserves.

18. Never forget that you are there to serve your community. Be their voice throughout the process. Your organisation doesn’t really matter until your clients are well-served. That’s what matters to your partner company, too. 19. Not convinced? Create your own company to make enough money to achieve your social goals. In this case, you no longer need to bother about corporate fundraising _ 20. And by the way: enjoy and have fun. I always do.

Download this resource as a pdf here (80.20 KB, 3pg)


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Basic Fund-Raising for Small NGOs/Civil Society in the Developing World

Published by Coyote Communications

Revised 17 August 2010

Some of the most frequently asked questions (FAQs) to online forums for community-based organizations (CBOs) in developing countries, whatever the subject, are regarding funding, particularly grants.

In addition, the first impulse of many such non-governmental organization (NGO) seeking funding is to request the contact information for possible funders, and once such information is received, these NGOs often write immediately to the potential funder, stressing how desperately funds are needed. Sadly, this approach often harms the NGO, rather than garnering support. Not only does it rarely attract funding, it can turn funding sources against the NGO altogether.

With all this in mind, I drafted basic tips for fund-raising for such organizations. I am offering my own significantly-revised version of the document for free to any who ask for it. When I began offering it more than a year ago, it was 15 pages long; now, it is 27 pages. It is a PDF file.

The document is meant to provide very basic guidelines for small NGOs in the developing world regarding fund-raising and adhering to the basic principles of good governance, and to point to other resources. By small NGOs, I mean organizations that may have only one paid staff member, or are run entirely by volunteers; and may or may not have official recognition by the government. These organizations are extremely limited in their resources, and are often in unstable environments and/or serving profoundly poor populations.

Please note that this document is NOT written for nonprofits serving the "developed" world -- organizations serving communities in North America, Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand or Japan would probably not find this document particularly helpful, as it has been prepared to make recommendations relevant for nonprofits serving in a developing country.



It is, instead, a set of guidelines on how to prepare an organization to be attractive to donors, how to search for potential donors that support organizations in the developing world and how to approach such potential donors.

The document includes:

-A list of activities an NGO should NEVER do regarding fund-raising
-How to network and establish credibility to insure fund-raising success
-The absolute essential preparations to solicit donations
-What to do before making a funding request
-Establishing credibility and a reputation of integrity, transparency and accountability
-How to find donors & make contact
-A warning about fund-raising scams
-Online resources for further information
-Online resources for detailed tips on writing funding proposals

Once you have received this document, please do NOT distribute the document via a web site or on an online discussion group without my written permission. I frequently update the document, and want to ensure people are getting the most recent version.

Suggestions for improvements to this document are welcomed, particularly from NGOs in the developing world.

Want to adapt the document? You are welcomed to translate it into another language, edit it, change it, and republish it or distribute it, per certain requirements, detailed in the document itself.

The version currently available is dated August 17, 2010. If the document is updated, a notice will be posted to the page you are reading now, as well as to my blog.

You can access the document either by contacting me via email, or, by subscribing to my newsletter, Tech4Impact (it's free to subscribe); the latest version of the document is in a private online area accessible only to subscribers.

To order the document via email, please contact me with

-your full name
-the organization you represent
-your city and country
-the developing country/countries your organization supports
-details on how you found out about this document
-a pledge that you will NOT post this document to a web site or network without first asking my permission and ensuring you have the latest version.

Your information will not be sold, traded or given to any other organization as a result of your submitting this information.

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Core Funding Strategies. Guidance Notes No 6

Published by London Voluntary Service Council

March 2005

This document describes the core funding strategies and its components
-Core Funding Strategies
-What are core costs?
-Why develop a core funding strategy?
-The five core funding strategy model
-SA case study in developing a core funding mix

Download this documetn here (PDF, MB, 8pg)


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Donor Deductible Status’

Plain text icon DONOR DEDUCTIBLE STATUS.txt8.15 KB

 This document describes Section 18(a) of the Income Tax Act.

Find the attachment below. (Text document, 20 KB, 7pg)

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Develop a fundraising strategy

Published by Tearfund 2004

Author: Rachel Blackman
ISBN 1 904364 28 4

This book shows how to develop a fundraising strategy and contains ideas to help organisations diversify their funding base.

-Section 1 Christian fundraising
-Section 2 What the Bible says about money
-Section 3 Developing a fundraising strategy
-Section 4 Characteristics of different funding sources
-Section 5 Appendices

Download this document here (MB, PDF, pg)

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Fundraising Guide for Women’s Community-Based Organizations

Outlining the basic concepts of professional fundraising

Published by Women Thrive 2009
Author(s): Ann Corbett, Anisa Ali, Catherine Lockman

Local organizations have difficulty navigating the often complex world of international assistance and fundraising. This guide was written to help bridge that gap. Outlining the basic concepts of professional fundraising, the guide seeks to assist our community partners through a collaborative process to increase access to effective resources. From practical advice based on years of experience in professional fundraising in the United States to detailed instructions on how to write grant proposals, budgets and reports, the principles and methods we introduce are applicable globally and can be tailored to local environments.

Chapter 1: What is Fundraising?
Chapter 2: Building Relationships with Potential Donors
Chapter 3: Not Just Foundations: Where to Find Money
Chapter 4: What to Do Before You Apply For a Grant
Chapter 5: Applying for Foundation Grants
Chapter 6: What to Do After You Get the Grant

Download this document here (MB, PFD, 56pg)

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How to Develop a Grant Proposal Writing Process

Taking the Long View of Grant Proposal Writing

By Joanne Fritz

If you're thinking that writing a grant proposal is a quick way to solve your organization's funding problem, you should probably go into another line of work. Writing a grant proposal should not be a one-shot experiment. You don't write a grant write many grant proposals. Grant proposal writing should be an ongoing process and an integral part of your overall fundraising program. Here are the parts of that process:

Click here to access this online toolkit

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How to Find Funders

How to find information about potential funder

Resource Alliance

The following pages explain how to find information about potential funders and how to research and approach donors. There is a great deal of information available about funding organisations, the challenge is identifying organisations which provide funding for the type of work you wish to undertake

This paper covers the following areas:
-What information should I look for?
-The Internet
-Sources of information about potential funders
- Directories
-Other useful Publications
-Approaching potential Donors

Download this document here (DOC, 37KB, 6pg)

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How to Organise Events to Raise Money

The benefits can be more than just money.

Resource Alliance
Author: Michael Norton

Organising an event can be a really great way to raise money for your work. It provides you with an opportunity to reach out to people who might not give you a donation – they may be much more interested in attending the event rather than in supporting the cause. Your challenge is to maximise the return you get from your event. The benefits can be more than just money.

Download this document here (Doc, 311 KB, 12pg)

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How to Write a Fundraising Proposal

The Resource Alliance

Extracts from the Worldwide Fundraisers Handbook 2nd edition (2003) by Michael Norton in association with The Resource Alliance.
Writing a proposal is probably one of the most important skills in the fundraiser's repertoire. For many smaller organisations, the difference between a good and a bad proposal will be the difference between success and failure. The fundraising proposal communicates the needs of the organisation to its potential supporters. And it is largely on the basis of the written proposal that many funders will decide whether or not to make a grant.


-Planning your approach
-Targeting your proposal
-Content of the proposal
-Writing the proposal
-Get in Touch!

Download this document here (DOC, 46KB, 7pg)

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How to write Logical Framework Analysis (LFA) in Grant Proposals –A Simple Guide for NGOs

Developer: Funds for NGO's June 2009

In various proposal  formats, we come across a table or a framework required to be filled by us to give more detailed information about our project. This table is referred to as a Logframe or Logical Framework or Logical Framework Analysis (LFA) or Logical Framework Matrix. This framework is the most important part of the proposal, yet it continues to be the most complicated one. Here we are providing some simple explanations to help NGOs and other development professionals on how to understand and develop this framework in an easier manner.

View this online resource here

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It’s Time to Move Beyond Overhead 01/10/2013

"The experts have spoken: the percent of charity expenses that goes to administrative costs—commonly referred to as  “overhead”—is a poor measure of a charity’s performance" : The Overhead Myth

OverheadMythLetterIn a historic move, the leaders of the country’s three leading sources of information on nonprofits – GuideStarCharity Navigator, and BBB Wise Giving Alliance – penned an open letter to the donors of America denouncing the “overhead ratio” as a valid indicator of nonprofit performance.  

The letter, signed by all three organization’s CEOs, marks the beginning of a campaign to correct the common misconception that the percentage of charity’s expenses that go to administrative and fundraising costs—commonly referred to as “overhead”—is, on its own, an appropriate metric to evaluate when assessing a charity’s worthiness and efficiency. The nonprofit sector, which all three organizations provide information to and about, has too often erroneously focused on overhead over the past few decades, which has starved nonprofits from investing in themselves as enterprises and created what the Stanford Social Innovation Review calls, “The Nonprofit Starvation Cycle.”

We need your help in eradicating the Overhead Myth once and for all. In doing so, we will help to ensure that nonprofits have the resources to invest their own sustainability and success!

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NPO Funding Cuts Survey 2013. 11/03/2013

The Non Profit Job Losses and Service Cuts Survey in 2012 found that 80% of non profits had experienced significant funding cuts in the previous year. Over 64% reported having to cut services to their beneficiaries as a result and respondents reported a 21% loss in jobs. To find out what, if anything, had changed, GreaterGood SA conducted a follow-up survey in October 2013.

Although fewer organisations report funding cuts (54%) – and the scale of the cuts has reduced, the overall funding environment does not appear to be significantly better for most NPOs surveyed.


NPO Funding, Job and Service Cuts Survey 2013

Posted on in Publications

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Proposal Rejection: Saying Thank You is Critical. 06/10

Your grant wasn’t funded, but it doesn’t mean the grant process is over and that all opportunities are lost.

By April Northstrom

June 2010

I’ve received a great deal of interest lately from novice and experienced fundraisers about what happens after you receive a rejection letter for your proposal. I have never hesitated to tell people that I’ve received plenty of rejection as a grant writer. What this rejection has done is made me a better, more strategic fundraiser without fear to ask for suggestions or help.

Your grant wasn’t funded, but it doesn’t mean the grant process is over and that all opportunities are lost.

Did you follow the guidelines? Did you make a good case? Did you answer each and every question that the funder asked? Did you spell the names of the contact person correctly? Nothing can be overlooked and the smallest error (yes, even a typo or misspelled name) can lead to rejection.

If you think you did everything correctly and cannot see an obvious reason for your rejection, then it is a good idea to search for more details about your proposal.

It’s fair to say that your rejection letter will offer little or no feedback. Assuming you have a strong relationship with a program officer, you can ask for feedback directly. Government agencies may provide comments or feedback with their rejection, but be careful not to overstep your relationship in this area.

Program officers are busy and may not have time to get too involved with organizations that didn’t receive their foundation’s funding if they don’t have a pre-established relationship or your proposal clearly did not meet the foundation’s criteria. A short phone call is the most appropriate way to reach out for feedback. Make your conversation brief. Ask for suggestions. Ask if they would welcome another proposal from you in the future. Is there a time frame for resubmission? Take notes and thank them for their time. Then, write your thank you letter and get it in the mail!

Thanking a funder even when you didn’t get funded is a critical part of the grant process. Especially if a funder spent time helping you prepare your proposal for submission. A “thank you” can go a long way with anyone. Write a letter thanking the potential funder for their consideration and if you are still a good fit, even include an invitation to visit during an upcoming event at your organization.

Don’t lose sight of a worthy funder just because they didn’t write you a check the first time around. Include them like you would any prospect into your fundraising strategy. Make sure funders receive newsletters, invitations to events, annual reports, etc. Be mindful of the things you mail to them…you don’t want to look like you are wasting resources. However, if it matches the funders interest, make sure they see it.

A good foundation will value your efforts to keep them aware of your organization. Develop a strategy to build your relationship and if their feedback gives you an opportunity to apply again, don’t let the chance pass you by.


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The Good Guide to Online Fundraising. Fundraising Futures. 8/11

Published by GreaterGood August 2011

The Fundraising Futures guide is designed to help build the capacity of South African non profit organisations to raise funds in an efficient and sustainable way into the future.

The guide will:

- Help you understand the basics of fundraising
- Give you tips and resources to support your strategic fundraising planning
- Show you how to make the most of your website and the internet for fundraising
- Provide guidance on creating an interactive Cause Space on our online giving community – to attract and retain new givers.


-1. Fundraising fundamentals
-2. Fundraising online
-3. Online giving community
-4. Resources

Download this document here (PDF, 564.49 KB, 22pg)

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The Irony of Overhead 01/10/2013

The Business Case for 21st Century Charities
Jacob Harold
Writes Jacob Harold in the Huffington Post

Click here to read an original op-ed from the TED speaker who inspired this post and watch the TEDTalk below.


Allow me to begin with a back-of-the envelope estimate: every year nonprofits have one billion interactions with donors in which they prominently focus on their "overhead ratio" -- the proportion of their expenses that goes to administrative and fundraising expenses.

Thus, nonprofits find themselves telling the story of work to house abused children or fight climate change... through an accounting ratio. They are responding to the tragedy of the "Overhead Myth": the common belief that such a ratio is a proxy for nonprofit performance (instead of a filter for rare cases of fraud.)

But, worse, nonprofits find that they are reinforcing that myth every time they communicate with a potential donor. Unlike Alanis Morisette's famous song, this actually fits the classic definition of "ironic": in order to raise money to do good, nonprofits highlight a ratio that constrains their ability to do good.

Indeed, the focus on overhead is more than ironic: it has very practical consequences for nonprofits. As described in a seminal article in the Stanford Social Innovation Review, the overhead myth creates a "starvation cycle" that undermines nonprofits' capacity to solve our world's most fundamental problems. Nonprofits find themselves choked by explicit or implicit funding restrictions, and sometimes even starved to death by under-investments in infrastructure.

And yet, there are glimpses of light. We've seen multiple examples of work to shift donor behavior. This summer, I joined with the CEOs of Charity Navigator and the BBB Wise Giving Alliance to write an open letter to the donors of America denouncing the "overhead ratio" as a valid indicator for nonprofit performance.

We will continue our work to educate donors and change this conversation. But we need nonprofits' help. We understand if they -- temporarily! -- feel compelled to continue sharing the overhead ratio in their fundraising materials. But if we're going to move beyond the Overhead Myth, we need to begin to offer donors an alternative. Help donors pay attention to the factors most relevant to nonprofit performance: transparency, governance, leadership, strategy, measurement, and results.

In particular, nonprofits can join the 95,000 organizations that have shared information through the GuideStar Exchange -- with 43,000 achieving one of our three levels of participation (Gold, Silver, or Bronze). Gold-level participants answer the five Charting Impact questions to populate the impact tab on their GuideStar nonprofit report. And through their own materials, nonprofits can begin to cite meaningful data about results instead of the overhead ratio. (Donors have other great resources available, too --they can find top nonprofits identified by Philanthropedia, Great Nonprofits, or GiveWell.)

The shift to a results-based approach to philanthropy will take time, but the path ahead is clear. Instead of promulgating the myth that low administrative costs are associated with high performance, let's focus on helping donors give with both their hearts and their heads.

It's time to retire the overhead ratio in favor of a multidimensional, impact-oriented framework to achieve what really matters: getting more money to the best performing organizations.

Ideas are not set in stone. When exposed to thoughtful people, they morph and adapt into their most potent form. TEDWeekends will highlight some of today's most intriguing ideas and allow them to develop in real time through your voice! Tweet #TEDWeekends to share your perspective or email to learn about future weekend's ideas to contribute as a writer.

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The Nonprofit Starvation Cycle 01/10/2013

A vicious cycle is leaving nonprofits so hungry for decent infrastructure that they can barely function as organizations—let alone serve their beneficiaries. The cycle starts with funders’ unrealistic expectations about how much running a nonprofit costs, and results in nonprofits’ misrepresenting their costs while skimping on vital systems—acts that feed funders’ skewed beliefs. To break the nonprofit starvation cycle, funders must take the lead.

Writes Ann Goggins Gregory & Don Howard in the Stanford Social Innovation Review

Organizations that build robust infrastructure—which includes sturdy information technology systems, financial systems, skills training, fundraising processes, and other essential overhead—are more likely to succeed than those that do not. This is not news, and nonprofits are no exception to the rule.

Yet it is also not news that most nonprofits do not spend enough money on overhead. In our consulting work at the Bridgespan Group, we frequently find that our clients agree with the idea of improving infrastructure and augmenting their management capacity, yet they are loath to actually make these changes because they do not want to increase their overhead spending. But underfunding overhead can have disastrous effects, finds the Nonprofit Overhead Cost Study, a five year research project conducted by the Urban Institute’s National Center for Charitable Statistics and the Center on Philanthropy at Indiana University. The researchers examined more than 220,000 IRS Form 990s and conducted 1,500 in-depth surveys of organizations with revenues of more than $100,000. Among their many dismaying findings: nonfunctioning computers, staff members who lacked the training needed for their positions, and, in one instance, furniture so old and beaten down that the movers refused to move it. The effects of such limited overhead investment are felt far beyond the office: nonfunctioning computers cannot track program outcomes and show what is working and what is not; poorly trained staff cannot deliver quality services to beneficiaries.

Despite findings such as these, many nonprofits continue to skimp on overhead. And they plan to cut even more overhead spending to weather the current recession, finds a recent Bridgespan study. Surveying more than 100 executive directors of organizations across the country, we found that 56 percent of respondents planned to reduce overhead spending. Yet decreasing already austere overhead spending (also called indirect expenses) may jeopardize organizations’ very existence—not to mention their ability to fulfill their missions. And although the Obama administration’s stimulus package may fuel rapid growth among some nonprofits, many will lack the infrastructure to manage the windfall and may well be crushed under the weight of all those well-intended funds.

Why do nonprofits and funders alike continue to shortchange overhead? To answer this question, we studied four national nonprofits that serve youth. Each organization has a mix of funding, including monies from government, foundation, and individual sources. We also interviewed the leaders and managers of a range of nonprofit organizations and funders, as well as synthesized existing research on overhead costs in the nonprofit sector.

Our research reveals that a vicious cycle fuels the persistent underfunding of overhead.1 The first step in the cycle is funders’ unrealistic expectations about how much it costs to run a nonprofit. At the second step, nonprofits feel pressure to conform to funders’ unrealistic expectations. At the third step, nonprofits respond to this pressure in two ways: They spend too little on overhead, and they underreport their expenditures on tax forms and in fundraising materials. This underspending and underreporting in turn perpetuates funders’ unrealistic expectations. Over time, funders expect grantees to do more and more with less and less—a cycle that slowly starves nonprofits.

Although several factors drive the cycle of nonprofit starvation, our research suggests that taking action at the first stage—funders’ unrealistic expectations—could be the best way to slow or even stop the cycle. Changing funders’ expectations, however, will require a coordinated, sector-wide effort. At a time when people need nonprofit services more than ever and when government is increasingly turning to nonprofits to solve social problems, this effort is necessary to keep nonprofits healthy and functioning.

Funders’ Unrealistic Expectations

The nonprofit starvation cycle is the result of deeply ingrained behaviors, with a chicken-and-egg-like quality that makes it hard to determine where the dysfunction really begins. Our sense, however, is that the most useful place to start analyzing this cycle is with funders’ unrealistic expectations. The power dynamics between funders and their grantees make it difficult, if not impossible, for nonprofits to stand up and address the cycle head-on; the downside to doing so could be catastrophic for the organization, especially if other organizations do not follow suit. Particularly in these tough economic times, an organization that decides—on its own—to buck the trend and report its true overhead costs could risk losing major funding. The organization’s reputation could also suffer. Resetting funder expectations would help pave the way for honest discussions with grantees.

Many funders know that nonprofit organizations report artificially low overhead figures, and that the donor literature often reflects grossly inaccurate program ratios (the proportion of program-related expenses to indirect expenses). Without accurate data, funders do not know what overhead rates should be. Although for-profit analogies are not perfect for nonprofits, they do provide some context for thinking about how realistic—or not—average overhead rates in the nonprofit sector are. Overhead rates across for-profit industries vary, with the average rate falling around 25 percent of total expenses. And among service industries— a closer analog to nonprofits—none report average overhead rates below 20 percent.

In the absence of clear, accurate data, funders must rely on the numbers their grantees report. But as we will later discuss, these data are riddled with errors. As a result, funders routinely require nonprofits to spend unhealthily small amounts on overhead. For instance, all four of the youth service organizations that we studied were managing government contracts from local, state, and federal sources, and none of the contracts allowed grantees to use more than 15 percent of the grant for indirect expenses (which include operations, finances, human resources, and fundraising).

Some foundations allot more money for indirect costs than do government agencies. Yet foundations are quite variable in their indirect cost allowances, with the average ranging from 10 percent to 15 percent of each grant. These rates hold true even for some of the largest, most influential U.S. foundations. And foundations can be just as rigid with their indirect cost policies as government funders.

Many times, the indirect allowances that grants do fund don’t even cover the costs of administering the grants themselves. For example, when one Bridgespan client added up the hours that staff members spent on reporting requirements for a particular government grant, the organization found that it was spending about 31 percent of the value of the grant on its administration. Yet the funder had specified that the nonprofit spend only 13 percent of the grant on indirect costs.

Most funders are aware that their indirect cost rates are indeed too low, finds a recent Grantmakers for Effective Organizations (GEO) study. In this national survey of 820 grantmaking foundations, only 20 percent of the respondents said that their grants include enough overhead allocation to cover the time that grantees spend on reporting.2

Individual donors’ expectations are also skewed. A 2001 survey conducted by the Better Business Bureau’s Wise Giving Alliance found that more than half of American adults felt that nonprofit organizations should have overhead rates of 20 percent or less, and nearly four out of five felt that overhead spending should be held at less than 30 percent. In fact, those surveyed ranked overhead ratio and financial transparency to be more important attributes in determining their willingness to give to an organization than the success of the organization’s programs.

Not only do funders and donors have unrealistic expectations, but the nonprofit sector itself also promotes unhealthy overhead levels. “The 20 percent norm is perpetuated by funders, individuals, and nonprofits themselves,” says the CFO of one of the organizations we studied. “When we benchmarked our reported financials, we looked at others, [and] we realized that others misreport as well. One of our peer organizations allocates 70 percent of its finance director’s time to programs. That’s preposterous!”

In this context, nonprofits are reluctant to break ranks and be honest in their fundraising literature, even if they know that they are fueling unrealistic expectations. They find it difficult to justify spending on infrastructure when nonprofits commonly tout their low overhead costs. For example, Smile Train, an organization that treats children born with cleft lip and palate conditions, has claimed that “100 percent of your donation will go toward programs … zero percent goes to overhead.” Nevertheless, the fine print goes on to say that this is not because the organization has no overhead; rather, it is because Smile Train uses contributions from “founding supporters” to cover its nonprogram costs.

This constellation of causes feeds the second stage in the nonprofit starvation cycle: pressure on nonprofits to conform to unrealistic expectations. This pressure comes from a variety of sources, finds the Nonprofit Overhead Cost Study. The survey found that 36 percent of respondents felt pressure from government agencies, 30 percent felt pressure from donors, and 24 percent felt pressure from foundations.3

Underfed Overhead

In response to pressure from funders, nonprofits settle into a “low pay, make do, and do without” culture, as the Nonprofit Overhead Cost Study calls it. Every aspect of an organization feels the pinch of this culture. In our consulting work with nonprofits, for example, we often see clients who are unable to pay competitive salaries for qualified specialists, and so instead make do with hires who lack the necessary experience or expertise. Similarly, many organizations that limit their investment in staff training find it difficult to develop a strong pipeline of senior leaders.

These deficits can be especially damaging to youth-serving organizations, notes Ben Paul, president and CEO of After-School All-Stars, a Los Angeles-based nonprofit organization that provides after-school and summer camp programs for at-risk youth nationwide. “It is clear to anyone who has led an organization that the most important capital in a company is the human capital,” says Paul. “In after-school we have a saying: Kids come for the program, but stay for the staff. If we don’t hire the right people, we might as well not run after-school programs.”

Meanwhile, without strong tracking systems, nonprofits have a hard time diagnosing which actions truly drive their desired outcomes. “The catch-22 is that, while organizations need capacity-building funding in order to invest in solid performance tracking, many funders want to see strong program outcome data before they will provide such general operating support,” says Jamie McAuliffe, a portfolio manager at the New York-based Edna McConnell Clark Foundation.

Take the case of a well-respected network of youth development programs. To protect the identity of this organization, we will call it the Learning Goes On Network (LGON). Poised for a huge growth spurt, LGON realized that its data systems would be hopelessly inadequate to accommodate more clients. An analysis showed that program staff spent 25 percent of their time collecting data manually. One staff member spent 50 percent of her time typing results into an antiquated Microsoft Access database.

Staff members can become so accustomed to their strained circumstances that they have trouble justifying even much-needed investments in overhead, our interviews revealed. “We [had] known for a long time that a COO was vital to our growth but [hadn’t] been able to fund one,” relates the CEO of one of the four youth development organizations that we studied. But when his organization’s board finally created the COO position, the rest of the staff resisted. “They had lived so long in a starved organization that the idea of hiring a COO was shocking to them.”

Misleading Reporting

The final driver of the cycle that starves nonprofit infrastructure is nonprofits’ routine misrepresentation of how much they actually spend on overhead. The numbers that nonprofits report on their financial statements “[defy] plausibility,” finds the Nonprofit Overhead Cost Study. Upon examination of more than 220,000 nonprofit organizations, researchers found that more than a third of the organizations reported no fundraising costs whatsoever, while one in eight reported no management and general expenses. Further scrutiny found that 75 percent to 85 percent of these organizations were incorrectly reporting the costs associated with grants.

Our study of the four youth-serving nonprofits likewise reported discrepancies between what nonprofits spent on overhead and what they reported spending. Although they reported overhead rates ranging from 13 percent to 22 percent, their actual overhead rates ranged from 17 percent to 35 percent.

Many factors support this underreporting of nonprofit costs. According to a survey conducted by The Chronicle of Philanthropy in 2000, a majority of nonprofits say that their accountants advised them to report zero in the fundraising section of Form 990.4 Limited surveillance of nonprofits’ Form 990 tax reports only exacerbates the problem: The IRS rarely levies the $50,000 penalty for an incomplete or inaccurate return, and generally applies it only when an organization deliberately fails to file the form altogether. According to the Chronicle study, “Improperly reporting these expenses is likely to have few, if any, consequences.”

The IRS’ ambiguous instructions likewise lead to error, report several sources. For example, nowhere does the IRS explicitly address how to account for nonprofit marketing and communications. As a result, many organizations allocate all marketing and communications expenses to programs when, in most cases, these expenses should be reported as administrative or fundraising overhead.

Government agencies likewise have varying and ambiguous definitions of indirect costs. The White House Office of Management and Budget, for example, defines indirect costs as “those that have been incurred for common or joint objectives and cannot be readily identified with a particular final cost objective.” It then goes on to say that “because of the diverse characteristics and accounting practices of nonprofit organizations, it is not possible to specify the types of cost that may be classified as indirect cost in all situations.”5

There is some good news. Currently, the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) is conducting a study of various federal grantors’ definitions of indirect costs. As Stan Czerwinski, the director of strategic issues for GAO, explains, “The goal is to achieve consistency, so that when nonprofits go in for funding, they have clarity (as do funders) about what they’re actually going to get reimbursed for.” The study is in the early stages, but as Czerwinski notes, the need is clear: “We don’t find anybody telling us that we’re barking up the wrong tree.”

Proper Care and Feeding

Although the vicious cycle of nonprofit starvation has many entry points and drivers, we believe that the best place to end it is where it starts: Funders’ unrealistic expectations. Foundations and government funders must take the lead because they have an enormous power advantage over their grantees. When funders change their expectations, nonprofits will feel less need to underreport their overhead. They will also feel empowered to invest in infrastructure.

The first step that funders should take is to shift their focus from costs to outcomes. In the nonprofit world, organizations are so diverse that they do not share a common indicator of program effectiveness. In the absence of this indicator, many funders try to understand an organization’s efficiency by monitoring overhead and other easily obtained yet faulty indicators. Funders need to refocus their attention on impact by asking “What are we trying to achieve?” and “What would define success?” In so doing, they will signal to their grantees that impact matters more than anything else. Even focusing on approximate or crude indicators (for example, “Are we getting an A or a C on our impact goals?”) is better than looking at cost efficiencies, as focusing on the latter may lead to narrow decisions that undermine program results.

Funders must also clearly communicate their program goals to their grantees. Having established that funder and grantee share the same goals, funders should then insist on honest answers to the question “What will it take to deliver these outcomes consistently, or to deliver these outcomes at an even higher level of quality or quantity?”

One of our study participants, for instance, worked closely with its major funder to think through this question, and ultimately determined it needed a sizable investment in technology to support its projected growth. The funder agreed that only by making such an investment would the organization be able to track outcomes uniformly and to make program improvements quickly.

When feasible, funders should help meet grantees’ identified infrastructure needs by making general operating support grants. Grantmakers and nonprofits agree that more operating support is very likely to improve an organization’s ability to achieve results, finds the 2008 Grantmakers for Effective Organizations study. And a 2006 CompassPoint Nonprofit Services study of nearly 2,000 nonprofit executives in eight metropolitan areas reveals that receiving general operating support played a major role in reducing burnout and stress among executive directors.6 Yet although 80 percent of the foundations in this study made some general operating grants, they dedicated a median of only 20 percent of their grant dollars to this kind of support.

Regardless of the type of support they provide, funders should encourage open, candid discussions with their grantees about what the latter need to be effective. Many funders’ grantmaking processes are not set up to consider the full scope of what grantees do, and why. As a result, their grants are not as flexible as they need to be. Yet when funders fully understand their grantees’ operations, they are more likely to meet their grantees’ needs.

Although changing their expectations will have the greatest impact on the nonprofit starvation cycle, funders can also intervene in other useful ways. When making use-restricted grants, funders should commit to paying a greater share of administrative and fundraising costs. Indeed, in 2004, the board of the Independent Sector encouraged funders to pay “the fair proportion of administrative and fundraising costs necessary to manage and sustain whatever is required by the organization to run that particular project.”

Likewise, rather than prescribing an indirect expense rate for all grants, government funders should allow nonprofits to define their true overhead needs in grant applications and, so long as these needs are justifiable, pay for them. For example, some federal funding contracts allow a nonprofit to justify an indirect cost rate (within guidelines), which the organization can then use for all its federal grant applications. Extending such a policy to all federal, state, and local government contracts would go a long way toward helping nonprofits deliver better programs while being able to pay for their grants’ management.

Finally, to foster transparent and accurate reporting, funders should encourage the development of a standard definition of the term overhead. Currently, organizations have to report their overhead differently for nearly every grant that they receive. Standardization would allow funders to compare apples with apples, as well as allow grantees to understand better their own overhead investments—or lack thereof. Having a dialogue about real overhead rates could also help shift the focus to the real target: outcomes.

What Grantees Can Do

The burden of breaking the cycle of nonprofit starvation does not rest solely with funders. Nonprofit leaders also play a role. As a baseline task, they should commit to understanding their real overhead costs and their real infrastructure needs. At LGON, for instance, senior managers spent several months digging into their costs, analyzing their current systems—including the organization’s subpar tracking process—and identifying gaps in capacity. After this strategic planning process, the organization could articulate a clear plan for a new tracking system and a 150 percent increase in nonprogram staff over three years.

Nonprofits must then speak truth to power, sharing their real numbers with their boards and then engaging their boards’ support in communicating with funders. Case studies of organizations that have successfully invested in their own infrastructure have repeatedly noted the need for a shared agenda between the leadership team and the board. The executive director of LGON, for example, communicated early and often with her board members throughout the strategic planning process. She also facilitated several meetings to address infrastructure needs.

For their part, board members should ask the tough questions before funders do, namely: “What does this organization really need to succeed?” “Where are we underinvesting?” and “What are the risks we’re taking by underinvesting in these areas?” Board members should encourage nonprofit leaders to develop strategies that explicitly recognize infrastructure needs. In developing plans for infrastructure, board members can help, notes Chris Brahm, chairman of the board of directors at Larkin Street Youth Services, a San Francisco nonprofit that serves homeless and runaway youth: “The people running agencies are often consumed with programs and raising money. Board members, whether businesspeople or otherwise, can bring external perspective on overhead services.”

At LGON, for example, the executive director identified a handful of board members who were fervent supporters of the emerging strategic vision. These board members then communicated to their colleagues how much overhead this vision would require.

During these discussions, both board members and managers should focus on how investments in infrastructure will benefit the organization’s beneficiaries, rather than reduce costs. Even within the confines of a “cost conversation,” they should emphasize how infrastructure investments may actually reduce the costs of serving beneficiaries over time. One organization in our study, for instance, determined that an investment in technological infrastructure yielded $350,000 per year by freeing up staff time and consolidating “scrappy” systems.

Finally, organizations must attempt to educate their donors. “Donors don’t want to pay for an organization’s rent, or phone bill, or stamps,” notes Paul, “but those are essential components of everyday work. You can’t run a high-performing organization from your car. And there are many ways to explain these types of expenses to donors.”

Both funders and grantees are feeling the sting of the current recession. But this economic downturn is no excuse to cut overhead funding. “If a nonprofit’s leaders are feeling as if they cannot raise money to support overhead, I think they’re confusing the issue,” says Brahm. “The real issue is that they can’t raise enough money, period. Either they do not have, or they have not been able to communicate, a results story that is compelling to funders.”

Rather than being the reason to reduce overhead spending, the recession is an excellent opportunity to redress decades-long underinvestment in nonprofit infrastructure. “There is real potential for change if all of the major stakeholders—government, private funders, and the nonprofits themselves—take steps to acknowledge that capacity building is critical to the health of an organization,” says McAuliffe. And although the forces that fuel the nonprofit starvation cycle are strong, the opportunity to achieve more for beneficiaries in the long term should compel funders and grantees alike to stop the cycle.

Former Bridgespan Group manager William Bedsworth contributed to this article.


  1. See also Kennard Wing, Tom Pollak, and Patrick Rooney, How Not to Empower the Nonprofit Sector: Under-Resourcing and Misreporting Spending on Organizational Infrastructure, Washington, D.C.: Alliance for Nonprofit Management, 2004. Wing, Pollak, and Rooney are three of the lead researchers on the Nonprofit Overhead Cost Study.

  2. William H. Woodwell Jr. and Lori Bartczak, Is Grantmaking Getting Smarter? A National Study of Philanthropic Practice, Washington, D.C.: Grantmakers for Eff ective Organizations, 2008.

  3. Kennard Wing and Mark Hager, Who Feels Pressure to Contain Overhead Costs?, Paper presented at the ARNOVA Annual Conference, 2004.

  4. Holly Hall, Harvy Lipman, and Martha Voelz, “Charities’ Zero-Sum Filing Game,” The Chronicle of Philanthropy, May 18, 2000.

  5. White House Office of Management and Budget, Circular A-122 (Revised): Cost Principles for Nonprofit Organizations.

  6. Jeanne Bell, Richard Moyers, and Timothy Wolfred, Daring to Lead 2006: A National Study of Nonprofit Executive Leadership, San Francisco: CompassPoint Nonprofit Services, 2006.

Ann Goggins Gregory is the director of knowledge management at the Bridgespan Group and a former consultant in Bridgespan’s strategy area. In her consulting work, Ann’s clients included education and youth development organizations, as well as foundations.

Don Howard is a partner at the Bridgespan Group, where he leads the San Francisco office. His clients have included foundations and nonprofits working to alleviate poverty, end homelessness, revitalize neighborhoods, end inequities in education, and improve the environment.

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The Overhead Myth. 19/6/2013

By Art Taylor, Jacob Harold, and Ken Berger


To the Donors of America:
We write to correct a misconception about what matters when deciding which charity to support.

The percent of charity expenses that go to administrative and fundraising costs--commonly referred toas "overhead"--is a poor measure of a charity's performance.

We ask you to pay attention to other factors of nonprofit performance: transparency, governance, leadership, and results. For years, each of our organizations has been working to increase the depth and breadth of the information we provide to donors in these areas so as to provide a much fuller picture of a charity's performance.

That is not to say that overhead has no role in ensuring charity accountability. At the extremes the overhead ratio can offer insight: it can be a valid data point for rooting out fraud and poor financial management.

In most cases, however, focusing on overhead without considering other critical dimensions of a charity's financial and organizational performance does more damage than good.

In fact, many charities should spend more on overhead. Overhead costs include important investments charities make to improve their work: investments in training, planning, evaluation, and internal systems-- as well as their efforts to raise money so they can operate their programs. These expenses allow a charity to sustain itself (the way a family has to pay the electric bill) or to improve itself (the way a family might invest in college tuition).
When we focus solely or predominantly on overhead, we can create what the Stanford Social Innovation Review has called "The Nonprofit Starvation Cycle." We starve charities of the freedom they need to best serve the people and communities they are trying to serve.

If you don't believe us--America's three leading sources of information about charities, each used by millions of donors every year--see the research from other experts including Indiana University, the Urban Institute, the Bridgespan Group, and others that proves the point.

So when you are making your charitable giving decisions, please consider the whole picture. The people and communities served by charities don't need low overhead, they need high performance.

Thank you,

Art Taylor
President & CEO,
BBB Wise Giving Alliance

Jacob Harold
President & CEO,

Ken Berger
President & CEO,
Charity Navigator

This letter was originally published here.

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Tips on How to Get Started in Local Fundraising

So you’ve decided that your organisation ought to be developing its fundraising.

Author: Michael Norton

So you’ve decided that your organisation ought to be developing its fundraising. But before you actually get started, there are a number of things you need to do first:

- Check the legal situation, to see whether and how you are allowed to fundraise, and what permissions you might need to obtain.
- Check the tax situation to see whether there are any tax benefits available to donors to encourage giving, and if so, then how to obtain them.
- Find out as much as you can about the state of fundraising in your own country, and what other organisations are doing to raise money.
- You should also try to see what experience of fundraising, if any, there is in your own organisation.

Download this document here (DOC, 224KB, 13pg)

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Top 10 Tips On the Fine Art of Cultivating Donors

Cultivation is what makes solicitation possible.

Joanne Fritz

Cultivation is what makes solicitation possible. Done well, cultivation sets the stage for easy and successful "asks."

Cultivation covers all the communication and contact you have with prospective donors from newsletters and annual reports to special events and presentations.

Cultivation is not haphazard...but carefully planned and strategic.

Kay Sprinkel Grace in her book, Over Goal!: What You Must Know To Excel at Fundraising Today, makes the following points about cultivation:

1. Cultivation involves board members, volunteers, donors, and staff.

Staff sets up and participates in opportunities for board members and other volunteers to meet and talk with prospective donors. It is a cooperative project but is dependent on your volunteers making themselves available for cultivation events. Be sure to include current donors as well. They are excellent advocates for your cause.

2. Cultivation is strategic.

Parties and events mean nothing if there is not good follow-up based on a good cultivation plan. Cultivation planning has two parts: general and specific. General cultivation is all about regularly scheduled events (think tours, coffees, presentations). Specific cultivation activities are those meant for special prospects, those who may or may not also attend regularly scheduled activities and events.

3. Cultivation is systematic.

Every event or activity should have a follow-up plan. Good ways to follow up are adding prospect names to your mailing list and sending thank-you letters. Follow-up can be an email or personal phone call from a board member or event committee member to patrons of the event. At an event, do assign a board member to each table and provide them with confidential lists and short bios of those at their table. If large donors or prospects attend, make sure a board member looks after them.

4. Cultivation should be coordinated.

All interaction with prospective or current donors should be reported to a central person (development director, executive director, or board chair). Set up forms that staff or volunteers can fill out and fax to the coordinator. If you have a donor database, enter this information. Such "intel" can be crucial to good follow-up and future cultivation.

5. Cultivation should not be limited to large gift prospects.

Make sure that everyone who attends an event leaves it with increased knowledge about your organization. This can be a brief presentation, materials at each table, or a packet given out as attendees leave.

6. Not all cultivation involves personal interaction.

Cultivation occurs anytime you communicate with prospects. Your regular newsletter can be very effective as a cultivation tool, but be sure it is communicating the message you most want your readers to receive:

Does it communicate the impact and results of your programs, or does it focus on your needs?
Does it portray-in words and photos-the kinds of people you serve in your programs?
Does it balance volunteer information, donor recognition, and program impact? Or does it overemphasize your special events?

7. Don't forget that cultivation can be unexpected.

For instance, you might receive favorable press coverage that brings prospective donors to you. Board members and other volunteers, who are enthusiastic about your cause, might arouse interest through their own social gatherings or professional contacts.

8. While it is important to cultivate, know when to ask.

The purpose of cultivation is to ease and ensure the success of your eventual solicitation. Learn the signs that a prospect is open to being asked for a gift. Because cultivation is pleasant and painless, it can easily become all consuming and stave off the inevitable: asking for a gift.

9. Cultivation of corporations and foundations is different.

With these entities you usually know what the deadline is for a funding request, and what the process is for closing the gift. It is easier to sequence your activities. With individuals, there isn't such a calendar. But the same rules apply: cultivation must be systematic, coordinated, and strategic.

10. Make sure there is a budget for cultivation.

Cultivation does not have a predictable or immediate return. Consequently, it may be hard to to make the case that these activities are necessary for eventual gifts. Have at hand a few anecdotes about prospects who became donors as a result of good cultivation.

As Kay Sprinkel Grace points out in her book, Over Goal!, cultivation is a process and a tool. It provides opportunities for the donor to learn about your organization, requires coordination, strategic thinking, and great follow-up.

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79 Grant Writing Resources You Can't Live Without.

Online resource. The author says “I'll point you to some of the programmatic, statistical, and productivity resources I find useful and share some tips that contribute to my success. I hope you'll share some of yours, too.” Although focussed on the American market, there are some interesting tools and suggestions.  Some of the categories covered include: Writing Tips; Style; Statistics; Research ; Grammar and Punctuation; and Budgets.

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Basic Tips for Fund-Raising for Small NGOs / Civil Society in Developing Countries.

From the author: Jane Cravens

Some of the most frequently asked questions (FAQs) to online forums for community-based organizations (CBOs) in developing countries, whatever the subject, are regarding funding, particularly grants.

In addition, the first impulse of many such non-governmental organization (NGO) seeking funding is to request the contact information for possible funders, and once such information is received, these NGOs often write immediately to the potential funder, stressing how desperately funds are needed. Sadly, this approach often harms the NGO, rather than garnering support. Not only does it rarely attract funding, it can turn funding sources against the NGO altogether.

With all this in mind, I drafted basic tips for fund-raising for such organizations. I am offering my own significantly-revised version of the document for free to any who ask for it. When I began offering it more than a year ago, it was 15 pages long; now, it is 27 pages. It is a PDF file.

The document is meant to provide very basic guidelines for small NGOs in the developing world regarding fund-raising and adhering to the basic principles of good governance, and to point to other resources. By small NGOs, I mean organizations that may have only one paid staff member, or are run entirely by volunteers; and may or may not have official recognition by the government. These organizations are extremely limited in their resources, and are often in unstable environments and/or serving profoundly poor populations.

Please note that this document is NOT written for nonprofits serving the "developed" world -- organizations serving communities in North America, Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand or Japan would probably not find this document particularly helpful, as it has been prepared to make recommendations relevant for nonprofits serving in a developing country.



It is, instead, a set of guidelines on how to prepare an organization to be attractive to donors, how to search for potential donors that support organizations in the developing world and how to approach such potential donors.

The document includes:

  • A list of activities an NGO should NEVER do regarding fund-raising
  • How to network and establish credibility to insure fund-raising success
  • The absolute essential preparations to solicit donations
  • What to do before making a funding request
  • Establishing credibility and a reputation of integrity, transparency and accountability
  • How to find donors & make contact
  • A warning about fund-raising scams
  • Online resources for further information
  • Online resources for detailed tips on writing funding proposals

Once you have received this document, please do NOT distribute the document via a web site or on an online discussion group without my written permission. I frequently update the document, and want to ensure people are getting the most recent version.

Suggestions for improvements to this document are welcomed, particularly from NGOs in the developing world.

Want to adapt the document? You are welcomed to translate it into another language, edit it, change it, and republish it or distribute it, per certain requirements, detailed in the document itself.

The version currently available is dated February 3 2009. If the document is updated, a notice will be posted to the page you are reading now, as well as to my blog.

You can access the document either by contacting me via email, or, by subscribing to my newsletter, Tech4Impact (it's free to subscribe); the latest version of the document is in a private online area accessible only to subscribers.

To order the document via email, please contact me with

  • your full name
  • the organization you represent
  • your city and country
  • the developing country/countries your organization supports
  • details on how you found out about this document
  • a pledge that you will NOT post this document to a web site or network without first asking my permission and ensuring you have the latest version.

Your information will not be sold, traded or given to any other organization as a result of your submitting this information.


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Basic Tips for Fund-raising for Small NGOs in Developing Countries.

AID Workers Network (2006) .  Very basic guidelines for small NGOs in the developing world regarding fund-raising, on how to prepare an organization to be attractive to donors, how to search for potential donors that support organizations in the developing world and how to approach such potential donors.
- The Problem
- Fund-raising: Some things You Should NEVER Do
- Fund-raising First Step - Networking & Establishing Credibility
- Even More Credibility-Building
- The Absolute Essential Preparations To Solicit Donations
- Details Ready to Share
- Before Making A Funding Request
- Finding Doors & Making Contact
- ESSENTIAL - Respect the Organization's Granting Guidelines
- Online Resources For Further Information
- Online Resources for Detailed Tips on Writing Funding Proposals.

Download PDF (36 KB, 15p)

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Fact Sheets on Financing.

Fact Sheets on Financing. Both ENDS. "The key question all NGO's face is where and how to generate the income necessary to carry out their work and cover all general operational expenses. Which types of grants are appropriate for which activities? How can long term financing be secured through different financial resources? Many NGO’s rely for a large part on grants from (international)donors. However there are many other ways to find money for your activities, and external fund-raising is just one of them."

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Fundraising Toolkit.

Sangonet aims to provide online information resources to assist NGOs with their fundraising activities.  This tool covers Online Fundraising, Sustainability and CSR, Proposal Tips and Research, Donor Interviews and Fundraising Case Studies.

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Fundraising and Proposal Writing - Handbook for CBOs IDASA (2005)

Most community-based organisations (CBOs) and other non-profit organisations depend on donors to provide money to run their organisations and projects. Unfortunately, there is lots of competition for donor money and in many cases the survival of an organization depends on how well it can compete with other organisations to raise funds and on how good it is at finding other ways to make money. Fundraising can be done in many ways, from collecting and selling cans, to cake sales to requesting large amounts of money from governments, individuals and other donor organisations.

The list below gives a summary of the most important sources of large-scale funding:
- Individuals; 
-  Local businesses, companies and corporations; 
- Special government funds, such as the Independent Development Trust (IDT); 
- Provincial and local government departments; 
-  Local trusts and foundations; 
-  Foreign governments; 
-  Foreign non-governmental organisations (NGOs);  and 
- Foreign trusts and foundations.
To succeed in any fundraising activity, an organization must do its homework. This means that the organization must know who it will be approaching for funding. It is useful to have some background information on the funder and its way of working.
The organisation must know exactly what it wants to do with the funding. It must prepare a funding proposal for the donor that clearly states what it is planning, how much money it needs, how it will be managed, who will be involved and what the outcomes will be.
Finally, the organisation must realise that fundraising is not a once-off activity that ends when the funds are received. The manner in which a project is implemented, its success and the way in which this information is conveyed to the donor are also extremely important steps in the process. All of these steps have a direct impact on the current and future relationship between a donor and an organisation.
To a large extent, fundraising is a relationship-building activity. The stronger the relationship between an organisation and its potential donors, the better chance the organisation has of raising the necessary funds. The foundations of this relationship are mutual trust and respect. The best way for an organisation to gain the trust and respect of its donors is by acting professionally and honestly, and by achieving its stated goals.  Download PDF (39p, 1.12MB) here

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Grant Writing

Part of the National Minority AIDS Council “Organizational Effectiveness Manuals Series”.  This manual presents the fundamentals of preparing a successful grant proposal for securing funds from private and public sources. Download PDF (2.7MB, 76 p)

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Guide to Resources for NGOs and Other Organizations. (2003) World Bank.

This publication is a webbased guide to technical and financial resources for NGOs and other organizations of civil society. The second version of this popular publication is in response to the demand for NGOs and other organizations of civil society for a one-stop source to information about funding for development projects.The Guide is in three parts. The Introduction provides a brief overview of how to think strategically about the sustainability of an organization in preparation for resource mobilization. Part I: Grant Resources Supported by the World Bank for NGOs and Other Organizations of Civil Society is a description of grant facilities that are linked to the World Bank. Part II: Other Resources for NGOs and Other Organizations of Civil Society provides web-site links to sources of technical and financial assistance. Download PDF (332.31KB, 70pages)

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Guidelines for Writing Grant Proposals.

International Council of Nurses. For many nurses and nursing organisations grant writing is a new competency and therefore nurses need to develop and enhance their skills in writing proposals that convince the potential funder. Guidelines for Writing Grant Proposals provides nurses and other health professionals with a step-by-step approach to writing a grant proposal, but can also be useful for other programmes.Download
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Raising Funds and Mobilising Resources for HIV/AIDS Work. A Toolkit to Support NGOs/CBOs . (2002) International HIV/AIDS Alliance.

NGOs/CBOs need a range of resources – primarily money, but also technical assistance, human resources, material goods and free services. Mobilising these resources is vital, but it can be daunting and, if it is not planned well, time-consuming.   This toolkit and training resource shares practical technical support developed from the experience of the Alliance, its partners and other organisations. It aims to help NGOs/CBOs plan and carry out resource mobilisation strategically and systematically, to obtain maximum returns for the least effort, while remaining true to their mission. It includes activities such as identifying resource gaps meeting resource providers, and writing proposals. Note: It does not address specific fundraising approaches, such as income generation, although it provides further reading in these areas.  Download PDF ( 1.57MB, 76p)

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Roots 6 Fundraising.

"Adequate funding is always a concern for development organisations. While our aim is to reduce poverty and facilitate change, it is tempting to be money-centred and let our funding direct what we do. Instead, we need to start with our vision, mission and strategy and then decide on a plan to ensure that we have enough funds to implement the strategy. We should think about how we can raise different kinds of support, such as encouraging people to pray, volunteer and take part in advocacy campaigns, as well as approaching donors for funding.  Some Christians think that people are not trusting God if they actively seek funding and have a plan to raise funds. This book looks at a biblical approach to fundraising and shows that, by planning our fundraising work, we can increase the impact that we have." Download (PDF, 967K)

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Supporting Community Based Responses To Aids: A Guidance Tool for Including Community Systems Strengthening (CSS) In Global Fund Proposals. (UNAIDS)

This document seeks to increase understanding about the benefits CSS can bring at national, district and local levels, and to support advocacy and technical support efforts around CSS.  It suggests ways to implement CSS and provides practical guidance on developing proposals for CSS for the Global Fund, which is now actively seeking to support such activities.   Most notably the guidance document aims to: 
- Define CSS in its broader context as well as how it relates to the three core priority areas of funding emphasized by the Global Fund.
 - Highlight/emphasize the role of relevant partners and how they can increase demand for CSS.
 - Identify the specific capacity-building activities for CSS, as well as beneficiaries and recipients.
 - Outline mechanisms to assess community-level needs or to conduct rapid CSS assessments with example templates as well as “dos and don’ts” for conducting community consultations.
 - Suggest indicators to better monitor CSS activities.
 Intended audience: Stakeholders likely to benefit from this guidance include staff in UNAIDS Country Offices and members of key affected populations, as well as civil society organizations, networks of people living with HIV, international and national nongovernmental organizations, academia, faith-based organizations and technical partners. 
 Download PDF (366.87KB, 44p)
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The Raising of Money. Thirty Five Essentials Every Trustee Should Know.

James Gregory Lord. This document focuses on the fund raising role of trustees or board members of NGOs, but also contains useful materials for anyone involved in fundraising. A new edition of The Raising of Money, updated for these unusual times, is soon to be released. Get the latest updates and priority access at Download LARGE PDF (19.49MB, 124p)

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Writing a Funding Proposal: Its as Easy as 1 2 3.

WHO. This guide has been written primarily for nurses, but it may also be useful to other health professionals as well. Download
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Recordkeeping and Reporting


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Surviving an Audit.

Part of the National Minority AIDS Council “Organizational Effectiveness Manuals Series”.  This manual addresses the most common legal and financial challenges CBOs face and offers practical solutions. Download PDF (2.12MB, 37 pgs.)

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Human Resources

Material to help you manage your organisation's human resources in order to achieve the maximum potential of each staff member as well as the organisation as a whole.

Wikipedia: Human resources is a term used to refer to how people are managed by organizations. The field has moved from a traditionally administrative function to a strategic one that recognizes the link between talented and engaged people and organizational success.

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Employment and Indemnity Templates from CMD/Usizo uThukela

CMD shared the following with us:

Employment agreement for kitchen and garden staff 
Employment agreement for Permanent Staff
Indemnity Form
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Family Impact Performance Management Tools

Family Impact shared valuable documents on Performance Management:

  • Management Performance Review .
  • Employee Performance Review . 
  • Role Evaluation and Personal Aspiration Review. 
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Human Resource Management - ROOTS 12. Tearfund (2008)

This book looks at policy and practice relating to people who work for an organisation. It includes practical information about recruitment, contracts and managing and developing staff.Contents :
Section 1 - Human resource management at organisational level
Section 2 - Grading, salaries and benefits
Section 3 - Terms and conditions of employment
Section 4 - Recruiting staff
Section 5 - Briefing and induction
Section 6 - Managing performance
Section 7 - Staff development
Resources and contacts
Download PDF 92pages (404 KB)
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Human Resources.

Part of the National Minority AIDS Council “Organizational Effectiveness Manuals Series”.  This training manual provides users of all experience levels with the fundamentals they need to build a successful human resources strategy for operating a nonprofit support organization for AIDS advocacy, prevention and treatment. Download PDF (2.97MB, 91 p)

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Measuring Human Resources Effectiveness - a Toolkit. (2007) People in Aid.

The author states that 'people are central to the achievement of the organisation's mission'. This toolkit evaluates the extent to which this is true - it enables an organisation to audit its human resources (HR) and people management systems, policies and practices, and identify priorities for action. It can be used by managers in head office, regional office or local /field office environments. The toolkit is comprised of a set of diagnostic questionnaires, guidelines and tips that enable organisations to perform an HR audit in order to measure and evaluate the effectiveness of their HR / people management policies and practices, and address any gaps or shortcomings.
The step-by-step guidelines include checklist; questionnaires and other useful resources. Download PDF

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Leadership Development


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'Autocratics Anonymous': A Controversial Perspective on Leadership Development. Praxis Note 14. (2006) Intrac.

Traditional approaches to leadership development have concentrated on training individuals in new knowledge and skills. The impact of this kind of approach is unclear.
This Praxis Note suggests an alternative approach which occurred to me during research carried out amongst civil society leaders in Malawi. I was struck by the similarity between the behavioural change processes that leaders went through and some key elements of the Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) Twelve-Step process.
It appeared that to take on a more empowering approach to leadership, leaders had to overcome an engrained habit or ‘addiction’ to autocratic decision-making. Such a comparison may have radical implications for the design of leadership development programmes. Download PDF (370 KB)

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Toolkit: Resources to Support Managers Who Lead.

(2005) Management Sciences for Health. This is the exercises part of the manual; includes Leading and Management Framework; the challenge model; creating a shared vision; recognizing your sphere of influence; developing measurable results; analyzing stakeholder interests and concerns; diagnosing root causes; distinguishing challenges from problems; setting priorities; urgency matrix; coaching teams; giving useful feedback; and more. Download PDF (98 pages, 607KB)

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Leadership Development.

Part of the National Minority AIDS Council “Organizational Effectiveness Manuals Series”.  This manual gives learners new insight and specific tools to lead their organizations more effectively and develop better relations with employees and partners. Successful Community-Based Organisations (CBOs) can attribute their success to employing 15 key components that support organisational effectiveness. One of these 15 key components is leadership development.  This manual aims to give learners new insight and specific tools to lead their organisations more effectively and develop better relations with employees and partners. It is based on the premise that a community's capacity to effectively coordinate HIV/AIDS efforts depends on skilled leadership. Key features include:
• overview of leadership: what are the attributes of a good leader, three leadership theories (trait theory, great events theory, and transformational theory)
• personal leadership styles: althought everyone has a preferred way of behaving, preferred styles may not be the best way to respond to a particular situation or person. Style flexibility refers to the ability and need to use the style that best meets the needs of a particular situation or person so that we can be more effective as leaders
• creating empowering climates: this section aims to provide an understanding of the followers’ role in leadership and how to use earlier identified styles to create empowering climates for others to succeed
• creating a vision: it is the important job of a leader to facilitate the creation a shared vision, which is articulated in writing. This fits into the idea of transformational leadership.  Download PDF (2.35MB, 56 p)

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Background Notes on Leadership (2007)

The World Bank Institute Leadership Development Program. Knowledge about leadership accumulated through decades of research into leadership issues seems to suggest that certain leadership characteristics that are useful in one field or culture are likely to be useful in another. If this is in fact the case, then despite significant regional differences, we would in principle be able to design courses and programs which – especially with tailored alterations – would be effective in any part of the world. Three basic building blocks of a good leader – or generic leadership skills – may include the following:

  • (i) The capacity to develop and mobilize stakeholders around a shared vision;
  • (ii) The ability to ensure effective translation of that vision into concrete outcomes; and
  • (iii) A commitment to integrity and ethics and the practice of accountability. Download PDF (20p, 407.04 KB)
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Health Managers Tool Kit: Leadership Development Management Sciences for Health.

Leadership development tools focus on strengthening leadership capabilities at all levels. These tools include self-assessments and skill-building exercises designed to assist users to increase their self-awareness and self-confidence, and to develop the skills and knowledge needed to practice effective leadership. Online 

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Learning Leadership Development from African Cultures: A Personal Perspective. Praxis Note 25. (2006) Intrac.

Leadership development is currently a very high priority for capacity building in Africa. Practitioner experience, however, would suggest that the plethora of initiatives are largely imported from the West, and tend to have only limited application to the specific African contexts and cultures in which they operate. As a consequence, they achieve only limited success in developing leaders. This Praxis Note argues that, to stand any chance of being effective, leadership development in Africa must be rooted in the influential cultural heritage. New ideas should be grafted onto existing indigenous cultures, rather than simply uprooting them and transplanting foreign models. The Note explores aspects of leadership and leadership development in precolonial Africa and draws lessons for leadership development in civil society organisations.  Download PDF (411 KB)

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Realities of Change: Understanding How African NGO Leaders Develop. Praxis Paper 6. (2006) Intrac.

This paper summarises the main findings of a programme of research into leadership undertaken by CORAT Africa in Kenya, INTRAC in Malawi and the Community Development Resource Network (CDRN) in Uganda.
These organisations interviewed 45 non-governmental organisation leaders to find out their perspectives on leadership; the nature of the leadership change processes they had experienced; and the factors that had promoted and constrained change in their leadership behaviour in the past.
Leadership development is currently being prioritised as a crucial capacity building intervention, both by leaders of African CSOs themselves as well as by donors and other stakeholders. This paper highlights the kind of contextual issues that practitioners need to consider when undertaking such interventions. Download PDF (1020 KB)

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Coaching and Mentoring


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Coaching and Mentoring for Leadership Development in Civil Society. Praxis Paper 14. (2006) Intrac.

Coaching and mentoring are popular capacity-building tools, especially in the area of leadership development. They are often mentioned in proposals and reviews as key elements of good capacity-building practice. Yet despite their current status, many of us are unclear what coaching and mentoring really involve, and where and when they work. We have a number of questions: What does a coach or mentor actually do? Is there any real difference between them? Where have these approaches come from? Are they really relevant to NGOs? When are these approaches effective? When are they not appropriate? This paper addresses these questions to demystify the concepts and practices of coaching and mentoring within civil society organisations. Download PDF (306 KB)

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Coaching for Professional Development and Organisational Results (2008) Management Sciences for Health.

This first issue of The eManager will help you examine your managerial practices and give you the tools to expand your role from manager to manager as coach. Using the OALFA (Observe, Ask, Listen, give Feedback, and reach an Agreement) self-assessment, you can evaluate your coaching skills and make a plan to refine and apply them.  Download PDF (236 KB )

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Executive Coaching for Leadership Development. Praxis Note 27.(2006) Intrac.

Coaching and mentoring are increasingly being used as tools for leadership development within civil society organisations. This Praxis Note illustrates how coaching can be used with leaders and staff in situations of internal tension and dispute to encourage greater communication and increased participation of staff.
The experience is outlined in the form of two open letters between Bwana Mkubwa, the director of the head office of a Kenyan NGO, and an organisational development consultant (William Ogara) who provided coaching support to the organisation. Details of tools, methods and approaches used during the process are outlined between the introductory letter from the NGO and the letter in response from the consultant.  Download PDF (256 KB)

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Mentoring Leaders of HIV/AIDs Community-Based Organisations. Praxis Note 24. (2006) Intrac.

Leadership is particularly important in small, informal organisations such as CBOs, being both their major strength and often their critical weakness. This Praxis Note describes an innovative mentoring approach to leadership development that simultaneously builds the capacity of the CBO as an organisation. This approach is being pioneered by the Barnabas Trust in South Africa which works alongside 53 HIV and AIDS-related CBOs. Download PDF (466 KB)

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Motivating Staff and Volunteers Working in NGOs in the South.

High staff turnover and poor performance have been persistent issues for both international and local non government organisations (NGOs). This research looks at ways in which these organisations can and do motivate their staff and volunteers. The aim was to identify the various non-financial incentives used by NGOs working in the South. Download PDF (50 pages, 862 KB)

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Management of Volunteers


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What Do Your Volunteers Want? 04/02/10

It may be time to take a look at your volunteer program and spiff it up so that your volunteers will want to come and stay.

Could it be a better time for volunteer coordinators? With the resurgence in volunteerism inspired by the new president, you may be inundated with calls from people who have decided it is time to give back.

It may be time to take a look at your volunteer program and spiff it up so that your volunteers will want to come and stay.

Volunteers are not that hard to please. Here are a few things they have a right to expect from you - master these and you should be able to recruit and keep your volunteers.

1. Volunteers want you to be prepared for them.

Many of us at some point have worked in the temp world. A common experience is to be sent to an office to work only to find that the office is unprepared. So you sit around trying to look busy when really you are twiddling your thumbs. Don't let this happen to your volunteers. The temp worker, after all, needs the money and will likely put up with this, but your volunteers will see you as disorganized and inconsiderate. Don't bring a volunteer in until you have everything worked out, from the job description to a place to work with proper equipment, to something to do immediately.

2. Volunteers want to feel welcomed.

Act as though your volunteer is a guest in your home. Show her around. Introduce him to your staff and other volunteers, have your executive director drop by and say hello and thanks. Don't let your volunteer feel uncomfortable for a minute. Show that your organization is warm, friendly, helpful, and happy to see your volunteer.

3. Volunteers want good training.

Even if the task assigned is a simple one, take the time to explain it, demonstrate it, and mentor the volunteer through the first few hours. Provide a buddy, another volunteer who is experienced, to help the new one.

When training a group of volunteers, be sure to use adult learning techniques such as group involvement. Volunteers don't want to be lectured to. They want to participate in the training. Include in your training clear expectations for your volunteers. Let them know what the job entails and the quality measures that you will use to evaluate their work.

4. Volunteers want to do interesting work.

Most volunteers are willing to roll their sleeves up and do physical labor as long as it is meaningful. But grunt work is out. Do not use volunteers to do the tasks your staff doesn't want to do. Envelope licking, wheelchair pushing, and mindless filing do not appeal to modern volunteers. Think of your volunteers as extra staff who are capable of performing complex tasks that take advantage of their experience and skills. Provide leadership opportunities to those volunteers who are willing and have the time to shoulder more responsibility.

5. Volunteers want to know up front how much time the job will take.

Everyone is busier than ever, and many volunteers may only have time for short term assignments. Project-oriented, rather than ongoing, assignments seem to work particularly well. Decide how much time your job will need and include that when you publicize your volunteer position. Will it take 6 hours a week that can be done over three days? Does it need to be done on a weekend? Do you need your volunteer for the summer, for a season? Does the volunteer need to be available from 2 to 4 p.m. during the week?

Provide lots of options so that you can appeal to a busy soccer mom as well as the retiree who has more time. Think about offering "alternative" opportunities, such as project-based family volunteering and even virtual volunteering.

6. Volunteers want to be appreciated.

Tell your volunteers frequently that they are doing a good job. Although you will want to come up with some creative ways of formally saying thanks, don't overlook the power of a simple gesture such as taking them to lunch, providing a small gift, or sending a thank you card to their home.

7. Volunteers want to be communicated with.

Regular communication is motivating for volunteers, while the lack of it is one of the chief reasons volunteers become dissatisfied. Volunteers like to have a particular person who looks after them. If your organization does not have a volunteer coordinator, be sure to assign someone to be the point person for your volunteers.

Be ready to listen to volunteers and respond to concerns immediately. Don't just communicate via email with your volunteers. Telephone them, have meetings, invite them to stop by your office, mail them regular updates or a volunteer newsletter.

8. Volunteers want to know that they are helping to make the world a better place.

Let your volunteers know how they are making a difference. Share success stories about your clients and programs. Bring them up-to-date on progress toward your organization's goals. Let them see your work in action through tours, presentations on the issues by your experts, and by inviting them to provide suggestions about how your work can be done even better.

9. Volunteers want to be socially connected.

Volunteering is a great way for many people to socialize, so provide the opportunity to do so. Become a matchmaker for friend making. If you think a couple of volunteers would get along famously, provide that opportunity by assigning them to do a particular job together. Provide some time for coffee or lunch. Invite them to your events and follow up to encourage them to attend or even provide help in getting there. Invite a volunteer to become an informal social director who might provide outside opportunities for volunteers to get together.

10. Volunteers want to learn something new.

Anyone who is willing to volunteer for an organization is likely to have a healthy curiosity and willingness to try new things. Indeed, many volunteers do so just so they can learn new skills or about interesting topics and issues. Provide that opportunity. Turning your volunteer job into a mini-educational experience will be highly valued by potential volunteers and will likely result in some great referrals as your volunteers tell others about what a great experience they are having.

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16 Tips in Recruiting Adult Volunteers.

Corporation for National and Community Service.

Recruiting the right people for the right program requires a commitment of time, energy, creativity and persistence, as well as a well-considered plan.

Access the  guidelines on their website

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A Volunteer’s Guide.

Nelson Mandela Foundation. Download
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Can government and volunteers partner

Can government and volunteers partner against the scourge of HIV and AIDS in South Africa. Download article.

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Family Impact Zimbabwe Volunteer Documents

Family Impact Zimbabwe share a number of document from their volunteer programme.

Download the attachements below:

Family Impact Vision, Aims, and Statement of Belief
Internal Procedures on Volunteers 2007 
HR Policy And Procedure Manual for Volunteers
Volunteers Application Form
Telephone Reference Sheet to be completed by the Project Coordinator
Volunteer Reference Sheet to be filled in by reference.
Volunteers Agreement Form
Volunteer Reward System: Zimbabwe Team.
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Management of Volunteers.

Although these short guidelines were developed for the ‘ Reading is Fundamental’ programme, these valuable tips can be adapted to many situations.

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Management of volunteers in faith-based organisations.

The objectives of the study were to determine the dynamics of volunteerism in FBOs within a broader theoretical framework of volunteerism; to investigate volunteerism within the context of 'Lewende Woord Ministries Trust', with specific reference to the structure, functioning, activities, motivation, and the management of volunteers; and to provide guidelines for the management of volunteers in an FBO in order to achieve the goal of the study, namely to provide guidelines for the management of volunteers in an FBO

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Service Agreement for Volunteers

PDF icon Serviceagreementvolunteer.pdf14.46 KB

Doenload Service agreement for volunteers from Rev Lourens Schoeman, Usizo uThukela

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Volunteer Management Practices and Retention of Volunteers.

The practices under study are supervision and communication with volunteers, liability coverage for volunteers, screening and matching volunteers to jobs, regular collection of information on volunteer involvement, written policies and job descriptions for volunteers, recognition activities, annual measurement of volunteer impact, training and professional development for volunteers, and training for paid staff in working with volunteers.

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Volunteer Management.

Part of the National Minority AIDS Council “Organizational Effectiveness Manuals Series”.  The purpose of this training manual is to offer guidelines for effectively recruiting, training and managing volunteers. Download PDF (2.36MB, 56 p)

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Volunteering Ireland.


Download documents from Volunteering Ireland. You need to go through a simple registration process. Sample documents include Developing a volunteer policy for your organisation,
  • The Relationship between volunteers and paid staff
  • Volunteer policies
  • Volunteer recruitment
  • Screening and selecting volunteers
  • Supervising volunteers
  • Introduction to volunteer management
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Policies and Procedures


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Christian Aid Policy

The Christian Aid Policy Case Study

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Managing HIV in the Workplace. A Guide for CSO's. 7/2010

Published by Stop AIDS Now! July 2010

If you work in a Civil Society Organisation (CSO) then this guide is for you. It’s about what you can do to reduce the effects which HIV and AIDS have on you, your organisation and its work.

-Chapter 1: Why manage HIV in the workplace?
-Chapter 2: How to develop your response
-Chapter 3: What will your organisation do to manage HIV?

Download this document here (PDF, 4.91 MB, 56pg)

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XYZ HIV/AIDS at Workplace Policy. 2010

This is a CSO’s draft policy, with the name ‘XYZ’ replacing the actual organization’s name. It is not a perfect policy, nor is it included here for other CSOs to ‘cut and paste’. Instead, we hope it will give you the sense of what a policy might look like, and may provide ideas for your CSO’s own policy.

1. Recognition of HIV and AIDS as a workplace issue
2. Policy objectives
3. Scope
4. Guiding principles
5. Responsibility for implementation
6. HIV screening, recruitment and employment
7. Confidentiality
8. Access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services
9. Occupational or other exposure
10 Stigma and discrimination
11. Reasonable accommodation
12. Termination of employment
13. Gender and sexuality
14. Review of the policy
15. Budget and work plan
16. Commencement

Find this document attached below

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Code of Practice on HIV/AIDS

An ILO Code of Practice on HIV/AIDS and the world of work

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Developing HIV/AIDS Policy Statements

CAF - Developing HIV/AIDS Policy Statements In Communities of Faith

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Education and Training Manual

Implementing the ILO Code of Practice on HIV/AIDS and the world of work: an Education and Training Manual

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HIV/AIDS Technical Assistance Guidelines.

South African Department of Labour This Technical Assistance Guidelines (TAG) document is intended to complement the earlier adopted ‘Code of Good Practice on Key Aspects of HIV/AIDS and Employment’ of 2000 within the framework of the policy options indicated in the ‘Employment Equity Act’ of 1998. The TAG will equip employers and other role players with practical tools to eliminate unfair discrimination based on HIV in the workplace. Download PDF (274 KB)

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How to Write a Policy Manual.


Policy manuals are developed to help staff and management teams run the organization. In best use situations, policies play a strategic role in an organization. They are developed in light of the mission and objectives of the company and they become the media by which management’s plans, rules, intents, and business processes become documented and communicated to all staff. Download PDF (228.58KB, 16 p)
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MCDC HR Tools and Policies

A variety of valuable documents were submitted by MCDC

  • MCDC Conditions of Service
  • Aids Policy
  • Dissiplinary Code and Procedures
  • Human Resources Policy
  • Grievance Procedure
  • Leave Regulations
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Samole Policy Statement

Sample Human Resources Policy Statement from the Allan Vincent Smith Foundation of Bermuda

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Service Contract for Temporary Employees

PDF icon Agreementtemporarystaff.pdf13.32 KB

Documents from Rev Lourens Schoeman, Usizo uThukela

- Service Contract for Temporary Employees

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Staff Policy on HIV/AIDS

Developing a Staff Policy on HIV/AIDS - C-Safe

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Towards a Policy on HIV/AIDS in the Workplace.

Towards a Policy on HIV/AIDS in the Workplace. The World Council of Churches’ HIV/AIDS Workplace Policy

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Workplace Policy

Centres for Disease Control Manager's Kit. Workplace Policy

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PQR Policy Statement on HIV/AIDS

Published March 2003

This is an international NGO’s policy, with the name ‘PQR’ replacing the actual organization’s name. It is not a perfect policy, nor is it included here for other CSOs to ‘cut and paste’. Instead, wed hope it will give you the sense of what a policy might look like, and may provide ideas for your CSO’s own policy


1. Scope
2. Aims
3. Position
4. Policy and procedures

Find this document attached below

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Training and Presentations

 Programme managers and senior staff in organisations need to be able to convey the wealth of information to others in training, or in presnetations - also at conference and other public events.

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Ethical Images for Your Cause: Six Dilemmas and their Solutions. 20/8/10

"Images of the South in Northern Publications: Ethical Photography and Related Issues Concerning Representations"

20 August 2010

In an age when we are inundated by images from around the world, taken with cellphones and inexpensive digital cameras, it is more important than ever to curate the images we then use in our communications in an ethical way.

The following tips came from an article about a workshop that is making the rounds of the NGO world. The workshop is called "Images of the South in Northern Publications: Ethical Photography and Related Issues Concerning Representations," facilitated by Rachel Tallon of the Council for International Development in Aotearoa, NZ.

The presentation was created by photographers, academics, NGO staff and others who have thought deeply about the ethical issues lurking in our multi-channel communications.

The workshop is aimed at how the north (i.e. developed countries) portray southern (i.e. developing countries) and the people who live there. But the ideas easily apply to anywhere...for instance, how we portray the poorer parts of the US, the marginal neighborhoods in a city, or the hungry, poor, disabled, or homeless.

The "images" workshop explores six dilemmas facing organizations that use images to promote their work, raise funds, or advocate for a cause:

-Stereotype or metonym . This is also known as the "branding effect." Organizations must avoid allowing one symbol to represent an entire country, continent, neighborhood, or group. Too often the subtle message is that we are superior and "they" need to be saved from themselves.
-Infantilization. Photos of children flood NGOs' websites because they work, pulling on the hearts of donors, but the question needs to be asked, "Is this realistic?" A survey of NGOs found that, typically, women and children make up 80 percent of the photos used on their websites, according to Ms Tallon of the images workshop.
-Selective framing. Are we leaving out crucial information and misleading our donors? Photography is selective...the image is only what our camera lens captures and then what is left after careful cropping. Many areas of the world are only known to many of us by their slums where, in fact, other pictures showing a beautiful part of the same location would give an entirely different impression. Both beauty and ugliness can be found nearly side by side almost everywhere.
-Gaze and text. The "gaze" refers to creating short-term emotions in a photograph without providing sufficient context or education around the issues portrayed. "Text" is about the captions. In the images workshop, the audience is invited to consider the difference between these captions of two boys playing soccer: "Two AIDS orphans" and "Jamal and Robert celebrate winning a soccer game at their AIDS orphanage in Kigali." One suggestion to avoid this problem is to ask, "What would the subject of the photo want as a caption?"
-The production process. Who is in control of what images get used on your website and in your publications? Do they or have they worked in those places, on that site, with that population? Familiarity is everything. An editor that never leaves her desk may just not "get it."
-Citizenship journalism. With the proliferation of camera phones and inexpensive camera equipment, it is possible now to get photos from people "on the ground." Rather than censor these images, consider giving your resources that are on site free reign and see what happens. You might get images that are more meaningful than those by a professional who is a stranger to the local situation.

The bottom line is that organizations need to take more care than ever in their acquisition and use of images. In an age of YouTube, Twitter, and Facebook, those images are seen by many more people than you might imagine.

Approaching images in an ethical way means taking the time to consider the pros and cons of each image, being prepared to explain why you decided to use it, and developing a code of conduct and ethical standards for the images you use.


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Making Data Meaningful. Part 1: A Guide to Writing Stories

On their own, they are just numbers

Published by UNECE (United Nations Economic Commisions for Europe) 2009

On their Own, they are just Numbers. They are everywhere in our life. Numbers appear in sports stories, reports on the economy, stock market updates, to name only a handful. To mean anything, their value to the person in the street must be brought to life,
This guide is intended as a practical tool to help managers, statisticians and media relations officers bring statistics to life using effective writing techniques. It contains suggestions for using text, tables, graphics and other information  to make data meaningful.

Download this document here(PDF, 1.56 MB, pg)

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Making Data Meaningful. Part 2: A Guide to Presenting Statistics

Published by the UNECE(United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) 2009 

A picture is worth a thousand words. Patterns and data are more often clearly revealed when you see the numbers presented as a picture. There are many ways to present data, from simple bar charts to more complex scatterplots, thematic maps and animated graphs.

This guide is a practical tool to help producers of statistics present data in a clear meaningful way. It provides advice on preparing effective tables, charts and maps, and using other forms of visualization to bring statistics to life. It also suggests how to avoid bad or misleading visual presentations of data, prepared with the target audience in mind, will increase the use of statistics and unlock the valuable information contained inside.

Download this document here(PDF, 2.24MB, 58pg)

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Public speaking 101. 5/8/10

My list of rules of the game for public speaking.


By Clem Sunter
5 August 2010

I am still feeling chuffed about a lifetime achievement award that I received a few weeks ago from Speakers Inc. The thought crossed my mind, as I went up to collect the award, that the only people who get lifetime achievement awards at the Oscars ceremony have to be assisted to the podium. Luckily, I can still get there under my own steam!

With 25 years experience behind me, I thought I would give you my list of rules of the game for public speaking. Comply with these rules and you will get good feedback. Break them and people will look the other way when you ask them how you did. They apply under all circumstances whether it be a huge conference, a cosy management workshop, a wedding reception, a sermon from the pulpit, or a dinner celebrating a special occasion.

The rules are as follows:

1. Make your content simple, consistent and compelling. Break it up into segments which you may wish to share with your audience at the very beginning. Memorise the number of points you want to make in each segment. That way, you will be more fluent in your delivery and take the audience along with you.

2. Be enthusiastic about your message. There is nothing worse than a speaker who lacks conviction and drones on in a monotonous manner. The audience immediately switches off. Equally, you won’t please everyone, so don’t be put off by that.

3. Be entertaining. Intersperse serious points with humour. The chances are that many listeners will remember the joke and then remember the serious message attached to it.

4. Maintain eye contact with the audience as much as possible and turn your head left and right so that you are not seen to be addressing just one section.

5. If you do use PowerPoint and slides, don’t go through every line in the slides. Emphasise the important points and presume the audience will read the rest. They can read faster than you talk.

6. There is a difference between being risqué and being sordid. So many wedding speeches are completely spoilt by over-the-top vulgarity. Find the right balance if you must tell a dirty story.

7. Never humiliate a member of the audience in your presentation or in question time afterwards. You have the power as the speaker and you must use it sparingly.

8. Try to avoid “ers” and “ums” and repeating stock expressions. I know this is difficult for some people.

9. Be spontaneous with your gestures. An audience can spot very quickly if you are being very organised with your hand and body movements.

10. Never go beyond the scheduled period of your speech. Trespassing on the next speaker’s time is an absolute no-no.

I am sure there are other rules which you will suggest in the comments section, but I would like to follow Rule 3 and end with a funny story. A speaker once came into a huge auditorium and, to his surprise, it was completely empty save for one other person. He said: “Thank heavens you are here.” The other person replied: “I’m sorry to disappoint you but I am the next speaker!”

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A Training of Trainer’s Facilitation Guide on Strategic Communication and HIV and AIDS.

(AfriComNet) This toolkit is designed to assist AfriComNet members and their partners to facilitate a five-day training which covers: 

* the basics of strategic health communication;  
* the basics of HIV and AIDS;  
* the principles and practices of adult education and facilitation skills. 

You can download session plans, handouts, and presentations from this website. The Guide can be used for occasional support, choosing a session or a day’s activities that are needed at a given moment, or as a continuing staff training programme for health communication personnel that need stronger skills, greater confidence, or a structure that can guide them through the process of developing a communication strategy. 

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CCABA Toolkit on Conference Abstracts & Presentations


CCABA has developed these easy-to-use toolkit on how to write effective conference abstracts, and on how to make compelling conference presentations:
CCABA Toolkit on Conference Abstracts & Presentations - EDITION 3 - English
Download in PDF Download in PDF
CCABA Toolkit on Conference Abstracts & Presentations - EDITION 3 - French
Download in PDF Download in PDF
CCABA Toolkit on Conference Abstracts & Presentations - EDITION 3 - Portuguese
Download in PDF Download in PDF
CCABA Toolkit on Conference Abstracts & Presentations - EDITION 3 - Russian Download in PDF Download in PDF
CCABA Toolkit on Conference Abstracts & Presentations - EDITION 3 - Spanish
Powerpoint Guidelines published by the XVIth International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2006 Toronto) Download in WordDownload in Word
Interactive toolkit on conference presentations
Toolkit produced by Jeff Radel of University of Kansas Medical Center
Download in WinzipDownload Zip File
Download in WordDownload instructions on unzipping a file
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From Concept to Critical Discussion: A Toolkit for Preparing the Best Conference Abstracts, Presentations & Posters.

Edition 3, January 2009. CCABA has developed these easy-to-use toolkits on how to write effective conference abstracts, and on how to make compelling conference presentations.
Download PDF (27p; 175.05KB) in English. It is also available in French, Russian, Portuguese and Spanish (go to and scroll down to the bottom of the page.)
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Training Manager’s Guide.

(Quality Assurance Project)

This monograph has practical guidance for creating successful learning experiences. It is organized to help managers implement training sessions, with step-by-step instructions covering topics from assessing whether training would be effective to evaluating the training. Includes several exercises to reinforce learning from text. Activities/Tools: training process chart, management chart (108 pages).

Download PDF (448 KB) 

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Information and Communication Technology


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Evaluating Social Media Components of Health Communication Campaigns. 6/1/2015

Published at Health Community Capacity Collaborative
Written by Emma Schwartz
15 December 2014

HC3’s held its seventh Health Communication Innovation Webinar on Dec. 9 to offer insight into using and evaluating social media components of health communication campaigns. Moderator Matthew Heck, Program Coordinator at TechChange: The Institute for Technology and Social Change, kicked off the discussion by speaking to the potential of social media.

“Regardless of your area of interest, social media has emerged an invaluable tool. With more mobile phones in the world than people, more than three billion Internet users and over two billion social media accounts, social media really offers the potential to reach a broad range of people,” he said. “For health specifically, social media has incredible capacity to raise awareness of health issues, influence opinions and begin dialogues, and fund raise both reactive and preventative causes… and that’s just to name a few.”

Why Social Media?

“With social media, organizations can get a reach that is beyond what they would achieve with any other tool by identifying the main influencers they want to target to become ambassadors of their message,” said Anahi Ayala Iacucci, Senior Innovation Advisor for the Internews Center for Innovation & Learning.

“If we’re looking to change behaviors, we should be examining the interactive part of social media and treat it not as an advertising or publishing tool but as a two-way communication system, as we can allow our audience to interact with us and the information we’re providing,” Iacucci said.

Iacucci shared a social media strategy framework created by Advanced Human Technologies that provides a snapshot of everything organizations need to consider when starting to design social media campaigns. Download the framework here. She presented two main points to keep in mind when designing social media health campaigns: the need to think about unintended consequences and the need to encourage participation and engagement.

“Setting up social media campaigns doesn’t only mean to set up a Facebook or Twitter page, it means to dedicate resources in terms of time and money to manage campaigns and make sure people can find the responses they’re looking for,” she said.

To evaluate success in developing and sustaining a campaign, it’s important to have tools and processes in place. While social media analysis can be expensive, Iaccuci provided three examples of tools available to make it possible on the smallest of budgets:

  • Gephi is an open source tool that shows where information is traveling once it’s dropped on a given social media channel, and identifies conversation influencers and targets (requires in-house technical support).
  • Luminoso visualizes how different online conversations are triggered by actual events happening in real time, helping to understand the relationship between online and offline worlds.
  • Crimson Hexagon is an easy, simple way to look at different topics within a specific subtopic.

Telling Stories on Zero-Budget

Amy Rowland, Digital Media Strategist and Public Health Communicator at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, highlighted the CDC’s effort to reach target audiences with social media and improve upon its work based on measured impact. Rowland shared several examples of the organization’s use of social media in campaigns.

Launched in May 2012, the Tips from Former Smokers campaign (Tips, for short) focused on messages about the loss of quality of life, not just dying early, from smoking. Rowland explained that most smokers want to quit smoking, but believe they have time before anything happens to them, said Rowland. The campaign used many digital media strategies, both paid and earned, to spread the message. Although the campaign was well funded, Rowland emphasized the impact of low budget or no budget tools that helped make the campaign a success.

“Before one dollar was spent on paid media, we already had over 284,000 views of Tips ads on YouTube prior to the launch,” she said. “We saw a 65% increase in viral reach on Facebook with the Tips launch and reached two million unique users during a live Twitter chat that trended globally for 18 minutes.”

Sentiment and support shared on Facebook revealed the Tips campaign was resonating with its audience. CDC found it was important to give participants a way to show the progress they were making and launched a milestone gallery with badges to share indicating how long quitters had gone since their last cigarette (along with the health benefits they were experiencing).

The team used Radian 6 to measure reach, as well as Site Catalyst for monitoring web metrics like hits, page views, unique visitors and the path through the site. To capture and evaluate all Tips-related conversation and impact on Twitter, CDC’s partners at UIC used Twitter Firehose. With this data, they were able to make a strong case for greater social media integration into the CDC campaign creative.

CDC’s Public Health Nerd (#PHNerd) was another successful CDC campaign in which the organization asked people to embrace their “inner public health nerd” using Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest and Instagram channels.

“We as human beings experience a range of emotions, and it’s okay on social media to focus on some of the lightweight content that can bond a community, and this is an example of that.”

Rowland cited consistency in look and feel, recognizable design elements, creative visual storytelling and a call to action as key elements of a good graphic campaign like this one. This was a timely zero-budget campaign, science-based, actionable and visually appealing. CDC used plain language, optimized the message for social sharing, and targeted the message and channel selection.

“It was the most popular, most engaging and the highest reaching campaign of the week. And it was posted during the Ebola outbreak – proving that a good strong visual hashtag campaign can be very effective,” concluded Rowland.

Using Metrics to Revise Strategy

Sheridan Marfil, Digital Producer at the United Nations Foundation, shared how social media has helped get vaccines to children around the world as a result of the Shot at Life campaign. The campaign educates and empowers Americans to champion vaccines as a cost effective way to save children’s lives.

For the past three years, the team has run a month-long digital dialogue campaign in August, called Blogust, to bring together online influencers to help change the world through their words.

“We have 25 online writers or video bloggers who share stories based on a particular theme each year. We have a corporate sponsor that helps provide vaccines for every comment or social media share on one of these Blogust posts. So, 36,160 comments and social media shares translates directly to 36,160 vaccines,” said Marfil.

This year, the campaign team leveraged Facebook, Google+, Instagram, Pinterest and Twitter. They nearly doubled the number of comments and social media shares compared to last year, and nearly tripled the use of the hashtag on Twitter, as well as the number of likes, comments and shares on Facebook posts.

The team surpassed their goal of 60,000 by 22,453 comments and social media shares, and continues to rely on metrics to revise and improve on their strategy, selecting platforms that maximize their shares and are the best fit.

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ICTs for Civil Society. 19/07/2007

ICTs for Civil Society - Applications for the Development Sector

Lyn represented CABSA at this conference and noted key points. Some of the outlines of the reports below are taken from the program on the website.

Sessions feedback, highlights and a blog on the conference will be available on the SANGONeT Website.

Day 1
Day 2
Day 1

David Barnard, Executive Director of SANGONeT and Tebogo Mokgatho, Chairperson of SANGONeT welcomed the delegates.

Deputy Minister of Communications, Min Radhakrishna Padayachie, officially opened the conference. He shared some of the Government’s key focus areas and issues around ICTs. Government shares the vision of civil society for the expansion of digital opportunities to address poverty and development issues – the most serious issues we face today. South Africa has set itself high targets for development and requires the cooperation of civil society to achieve these.

Some of the priorities for government include:
- Integrated ICT development
- Broadcasting Digital Migration
- E-education and e-health
- Access to government services

This will require robust, reliable, accessible services, access to basic infrastructure for all and answering the needs of the present as well as the future.

The South African Post Office is designated as focal point of access to key services by the Government. ICT is one of the driving forces in the modernization of the economic sector and driving economic growth and people centred development.

Daniel Ben-Horin, President, CompuMentor shared some of the similarities and differences between SANGONeT and CompuMentor and the new opportunities for cooperation. He told of the exciting development of a group of capacity building development organisations creating a partnership for providing ICT services and products to grass roots users at a fraction of the commercial costs. The advantages of this network includes that it will:
- Be everywhere
- Enhance civil society capacity as a whole
- Be technologically robust
- Based on financially sustainable business relationships
- Provide support for the ‘new web’ (Wikipedia) that allows cooperation among users – new forms of cooperation
- Be based on the core competency of the network is creating clear methodology for what consists a civil society organisation in a particular setting.

This network will be operating in eleven countries in 3 months – using regional hubs and creating new possibilities of beneficial exchange of goods and services and ideas throughout the world. This will help create the balance between providing a service and sustainability. 

Opening Plenary: State of ICTs in the South African NGO Sector

Although many South African NGOs are already active users of ICTs, much more needs to be done to build the capacity of the sector. The introduction and integration of ICTs represents huge opportunities, as well as challenges, in the process of transforming and strengthening the South African NGO sector. However, very little is known about the scope of ICT infrastructure and skills in the NGO sector, the impact of ICT applications on the work of the sector, and how the sector is responding to increasing demands for greater efficiency as a result of ICT adoption and implementation.

In response to this situation, SANGONeT commissioned leading South African ICT research company, World Wide Worx, to conduct a research project on the “State of ICTs in the South African NGO Sector”.  The objective of this project is to analyse the South African NGO sector’s application and awareness of ICTs in support of achieving its strategic objectives. The research findings were officially released during the opening plenary session of the conference.

Steven Ambrose from World Wide Worx gave an overview of the study results. Three hundred organisations were surveyed.

The main focus of the study was to find out if ICTs are making a difference to the operation and if the industry is providing for the needs of this sector. He highlighted the strong linkages and similarities between the NGO sector and SME sector.

The study shows that NGOs are mainstream and sophisticated computer users. Some of the key findings:
- Only 19% do not have their own servers,
- 95% use Microsoft as operating system, very few organisations use open source,
- a large component use wireless networking,
- Phone, fax, email is virually universal,
- A small group (21%) view their use of ICT as basic, 39% view themselves as above average,
- 86% use accounting software,
- 27% of organisations have a dedicated IT function
- Only 23% use CRM (client relationship management, or in our case, donor relationship management) software – most adapt Excel or Access ,
- High level of ADSL use,
- Lot of customised software is used,
- Cost of internet connection is an issue,
- Large degree of mobility of NGO staff requires mobile connections,
- Very few use fundraising software.

 IT investment is geared to the administrative needs of organisations and not to providing for their key competencies – there is huge opportunities for the market to expand.


Katrin Verclas from the Nonprofit Technology Network (N-Ten) from the United States and Doug Jacquier, Community Information Strategies Australia (CISA) (Australia) highlighted the situations in their respective countries and communities.

The challenge was put to the researchers and those in the field to clearly prove the value of ICTs for the end user in the development arena. Interesting questions were posed about:

- the degree to which NGOs are aware of open source software and why the use is so low within the sector.
- The role ICTs can play in not only enhancing administrative functions but also on providing the key services of the organisation.

 Session 1 Building Online Communities

Three parallel sessions after lunch covered ‘Building online communities’; ‘Remix in the Rainbow Nation - Language, Content and Peer Production’ and ‘Monitoring & Evaluation’.

I attended a session on Building Online Communities. This session highlighted Web 2.0 technologies which create opportunities for a range of social actors, campaigners and change advocates to take causes and campaigns to national and global level. We heard that many of the collaborative tools provided are free; lowering barriers to entry for even sophisticated tools like mapping social data onto satellite pictures.

This practical session looked at these technologies from a civil society perspective and will cover blogging, wikis, sharing images and a number of other online tools.

Rob Purdie of UK based ‘Important Projects’ spoke about “Using RSS Feeds” and RSS as foundation technology for Web 2.0 technologies. The first question he asked is “What is RSS and why should NGOs care?”
RSS is ‘Really Simple Syndication’ the publishing of webcontent through
- RSS Feeds
o RSS feeds are XML fields generated by web publishing software
o Provides users or machines with new or updated web content
- RSS aggregator
o Aggregators request and display RSS feeds
o Can be desktop ( or webbased (Google Reader) software
- Website managers make content available as feeds on
- CMS-driven websites
- Blogs
- Wikis

End users subscribe to those feeds through feed readers.

Other website managers syndicate the material.

NGOs can benefit from RSS.  How will this help us

– will give us updated information without us having to look for it.
– Safes you time
– Make online collaboration easier and cheaper
– You can actually get:
o the information you require
o in the time you have available,
o about the issues you’re interested,
o about your profession,
o about your organisation
o you can search ‘the future’
o You can create ‘team tags’ on sites like
o You can allow others to find you
o You avoid being a spammer
All you need to do:
- choose an aggregator/reader - depending on if you are always online or if you only go online at times
- Subscribe to feeds

More tools and resources are available on the SANGONeT website.

Stefan Lesicnik of ‘Linux System Dynamics’told us more about the possibilities in “Using Google Earth”. He hoped to stimulate thought on possible uses of Google Earth as Tool in our sector.

Various possibilities are available from Google – some free and some at varying costs. The basic version is free while Google Earth Plus provides GPS Support, faster speeds, the possibility to import spreadsheets at a small cost while the more expensive Google Earth Enterprise provides fully customisable options.

We saw how the use of layers strengthen the use of Google Earth for educational purposes. The use of overlays are not technically complicated and the possibilities of combining data with maps are very exciting.

As you can imagine, my mind is spinning! Can you imagine that we could have our project database overlain onto Google Earth! I can see how you can look for a project with specific criteria in a specific geographical area and actually SEE where they are! I will definitely be looking at more possibilities!

The afternoon session provided more choices. Sessions were available on Online Campaigning; Mobile Technologies & Tools; and NGO ACTProcurement.

In the session on Online Campaigns we were addressed by Michelle Odayan, Executive Director, Agenda Feminist Media and Aadila Molale, Manager: NGO Directories, SANGONeT

Michelle reminded us of the need for finding value and understanding the limitations of online technologies in supporting advocacy and campaign interventions in Africa.

Value added include:
- sheer size of the internet
- information at your fingertips
- easy transfer of information
- speed
- documentation management
- potential for learning
- can be cost effective …broadband
- not used enough for monitoring and evaluation.

The following Limitations should be considered:

- Situation in African vs Northern developed countries
- Access to and associated costs
- Organisation of information – unsystematic, poorly indexed and random
- Quality of material are variable
- Literacy and language
- Who speaks for whom

Issues to consider when harnessing online technologies for social change:

- make it work for you – strategically
- capacity and knowledge development
- communication and collaboration
- raising awareness
- publishing
- advancing your work
– gaining support and marketing
- tools in the right hands with the right skills create great things.

The convergence of technologies such as telephone, email, radio etc create powerful possibilities. For this to be successful, smart phones can become powerful tools.

She highlighted some of the work Agenda did in the area of gender based violence using ITCs and some of the things they have learned in their use of these technologies. Again access to ICTs remains a challenge.

Strategies going forward:

- advocate for freer access
- telecommunications reform and pricing regulation
- convergence of online tools streamlined in a campaigning process
- learn from the developed world but imperative that we define what works for us
- Women’s participation at all levels.

 Aadila spoke about some of the international campaigns and the tools available locally.

- 8% of population have internet access – this is 3.5 million people
- 23% have access through their work
- most internet users are socio-economically more 'comfortable'. 

This remains the biggest challenge for Online campaigns.

She highlighted examples of various campaigns
- Amnesty International Million Faces Campaign

Some emerging online tools where illustrated:

- Global Campaign for Education – downloadable material
- Oxfam – management of networks
- Human Rights Directory assist and encourage networking. Available at
- Networking Toolkit to combine online and offline content
- PRODDER project – republishing of book. Information for and about the development sector
- SANGONeT is planning a new online open source hosted application with Civi-CRM which will provide exciting new options.

It is clear that we are not using the available tools and especialy the Web 2.0 tools that are freely available enough.  We will definitely think about this, and also think about how we can use our already strained human and financial capacity more effectively.

The session on NGO ICT Procurement (which I did not attend) highlighted the SANGOTeCH online technology donation portal.

The SANGOTeCH online technology donation and discount portal is a partnership between SANGONeT and TechSoup, the San Francisco-based non-profit technology capacity building organisation that links technology donations and the NGO sector.

The SANGOTeCH programme assists NGOs in two key ways: by providing software for a very low administration fee, as well as by assisting NGOs in making the most of their ICT purchases and infrastructure. TechSoup programme has been running for nearly five years in the United States, and has distributed software to the value of $600 million to nearly 50 000 non-profit organisations.

In the six months since the launch of the programme in South Africa, SANGOTeCH has already distributed software and hardware to the value of more than R5 million to South African NGOs at a cost of less than R280 000; a saving to the sector of over R4.75 million.

This evening we will be attending the Gala Dinner, which will be a celebration of SANGONeT 20th Anniversary and NGO Web Awards.

Already I have had many interesting discussions, and heard a lot of new ideas in this first day of the conference – I hope that you will be seeing more of what I have learnt in the webpage and our communication in future!

Day 2

In the first session of the day sessions where presented on ‘Constituent and Business Management Systems for NGOs - Session 1’; ‘ICT Policy in Africa’ and ‘ICT and HIV/Aids

Off course, I had to attend the session on “ICT and HIV/Aids

The community ICT sector can play an important role in using technology to support the fight against the disease in a number of ways, including improving the efficiency of organisations in the sector, spreading the message about how to protect oneself against HIV and to reduce stigma, strengthening the health system’s ability to provide care and treatment to HIV+ people, particularly in supplying Anti-RetroViral drugs (ARVs), developing proper monitoring and evaluation systems to help direct the national response to the pandemic, and allowing the voice of the millions infected and affected by HIV to be heard, for self-organisation, wider distribution and linking with the health system.

This session outlined the challenges of HIV and the new targets of the National Strategic Plan (NSP) and explore how the community ICT sector can respond to and assist the implementation of the NSP.  Examples will also be presented about innovative uses of ICT in the fight against HIV/AIDS.

Dr Peter Benjamin, General Manager, Cell-Life gave background information on the situation around HIV in South Africa, highlighted the key targets of the NSP and the challenges this will pose. 

ICTs can support this plan in various ways

-         strengthen ‘back office’
-         strengthen mass communication
-         support health informatics
-         monitor and evaluate
-         support the self organisation of those living with HIV
-         sharing of knowledge andnetworking

At the end the effectiveness of systems, including. ICT systems will determine the success of the plan.

He also spoke of the range of service Cell-Life provides through cell phone technologies. There are many exciting possibilities for the HIV arena and particularly for those providing medical treatment and care. Peter highlighted the disconnect between information providers and those requiring information and ways in which cell phones can overcome this and ways in which TAC particularly are trying to use this technology. Possibilities for cell phone users include:

-         receivinginfo
-         interaction in organisation
-         peer to peer support
-         wiki type collaboration
-         social network etc.

A process has just been started to create a national mass HIV/AIDS information network via cell-phone. This exciting project has huge potential for our communication needs, and I will discuss ways of being part of this with the organisers.

Sally Shackleton, Deputy Director, Women’sNet spoke of her organisation’s concern with the voices of women being heard. She shared a video focussing on ‘digital stories’.  She highlighted research on the use of cell phone technologies in HIV work.  She reminded us that:
- as violence and HIV is a gendered issue, so is access to ICTs!
- The key factor in success of incorporating a technology into a system is TIME – this can take at least five years. 
- ICTs can not make an inefficient system work, but can make a system that works more efficient. 
- Access is determined by a wide set of criteria – socio economic status, gender, location. 
- A universal solution is not possible in South Africa, systems need to be localised.

Andree Gacoin, AIDS Portal. This project focuses on linking organisations and networks through a dynamic internet platform. This tool is becoming a gateway to high quality information on key topics in the HIV arena. Andprovides the opportunity for discussions to bring stakeholders together on key issue.

Tukisang Senne, Health Director, Mindset Network. This organisation provides large scale health education to health workers and the public via satellite driven broadcasts in health delivery areas, as well as on demand broadcast through a computer interface both online and offline. Through this service the organisation:

-         provides educational material
-         ensures continuous professional development
-         provides the ability to monitor public health
-         enables remote consultations
-         improve efficiency of the health system

Cornel Silaule, Information Specialist, Soul City told of the Soul City Edutainment model using TV, radio, drama and print and how they integrate this.

The delegates were divided into groups which discussed ways in which ICTs can strengthen the response to HIV in the areas of youth and sexuality; women’s empowerment; health systems; mass information & broadcasting; counselling and community capacity building. Each group discussed

-         What are the issues and challenges in this area
-         What could ICTs offer
-         What are the challenges
-         What are the opportunities

Many powerful suggestions and ideas came to the fore.  I am sure that many of these ideas will be taken ahead by SANGONeT in the time head.

Session 2

The next parallel session provided a choice between session on Session 2 on Constituent and Business Management Systems for NGOs; Open Source Case Studies & Trends for NGOs; and Community Access to ICTs.  

As an introduction we heard about the Association for Progressive information and the APC Internet Rights Charter and were encouraged to join in this process to ensure
- internet access for all;
- freedom of expression and association; and
- access to knowledge.

I would encourage you to have a look at the charter on their website.

In the discussion on Open Source Case Studies & Trends for NGOs we looked at the usability of Open Source and the ideological factors of NGOs Open Source use.

Cassim de Bruin, IT Manager of the Institute for Democracy in South Africa  (IDASA) sketched the challenges and use of IT in the organisation and their challenges in moving to open source products. Although we heard a lot of technical information, the key message is that the move to Open Source was not easy but in the end was worthwhile and increased the abilities of the organisation. He highlighted LDAP, Novell Group Software, SAMBA, Swish-E. His key message was – with Open Source there are no limits! He reminded that the cost of IT is not only the cost of a computer but that a variety of related costs should be included and that organisations should consider IT in all parts of their organisation’s strategic planning.

Tshepo Thlaku is Programme Manager of Ungana Afrika  (who provides support to NGOs through the E-riders programme). He explained that Open Source materials are not only free to obtain but also open to be modified and redistributed. Although the material is free, there are cost factors to be considered – training, support etc. He presented a case study where the organisation provided technology support for community based radio stations in Mpumalanga. Interestingly, it was easier to convince ‘new’ computer users to use these products than established users. As with any change process, it was important to convince users of the benefit of the new products for them. In order to integrate Open Source into the work of an organisation, it was necessarily to de-mystify the process, to provide training and support  which is focussed on the needs of the organisation.

Some of the applications used include:
-         Open Office
-         Turbo Cash
-         Mozilla Thunderbird
-         Mozilla Firefox
-         E-base - CRM application
-         Audacity - radio production software
-         Campcaster - broadcasting software, (piloted)

Some of the successes were that stations

-         became aware and used licensed software
-         have better software selection
-         have access to tools that were not available to them before
-         understand the concepts of FOSS
-         integrate the FOSS into their operations.

It became clear that there should be greater integration of FOSS (Free and Open-Source Software) but that support, both technical and funding support, is critical.

Bill Lester, Chief  Information Officer of EngenderHealth spoke of Open Source in their organisation. The have a philosophy of sharing their best practises with partner organisations and the community at large, so they are committed to the philosophy of open source, but find the practical application difficult.

He explained the specific need they had for a content management system for their Standard Operating Procedures. They were looking for a uncomplicated system with good support.    He again emphasised that there are costs involved in setting up and training for the use of open source materials. The choice fell on PLONE – this system has been implemented and is still in the test phase. Other PLONE specific sites are also being built for the organisation. The ease of use, fact that specialists are not necessary to work on this program, search functionality, print options and email options were specifically appreciated. 

I think, for me, this session again opened my mind to the large number of opportunities and possibilities out there! There is a strong sense that the philosophy behind the Open Source products naturally fit with the philosophy and key way of operation of NGOs.  We are continually reminded of the fact that we should consider the costs and possibilities inherent in this tool.

The challenge for me is again to find way in which we can use this information to make the service we provide better and more accessible. 

Session 3

After lunch it was time for the last parallel session of the conference, which provided a choice between ‘Online Giving Opportunities - The Giver's Journey’ and ‘Women, ICT and the Media

You all know how we constantly struggle with finances, so once again the choice was made for me. I just had to attend the session on ‘Online Giving Opportunities - The Giver's Journey’

This session was described as follows “Strategies for Understanding and Maximizing ICT to Encourage Relationship Building and Grow Online Giving Opportunities - The Giver's Journey

The session will focus on GreaterGood SA's ( international research into the power, potential and style of online marketplaces and giving platforms over the past two years. It will present insights into the learnings and demonstrate the strategies informing the development of the new GGSA social networking and online giving platform. The new platform moves beyond being the transactional to cater for the needs of both the giver and NGO, facilitating meaningful engagement between the two groups.

Specific objectives of the session are to demonstrate how to encourage considered, ongoing, outcomes-based giving; encourage NGOs to think about moving away from the classic donation model to a new interactive model that focuses on engaging the giver more meaningful in the online environment; develop an understanding in NGOs about the benefits of multiple forms of support and how these can be managed in the online environment (demonstrated on the new GGSA platform); demonstrate the potential for sustained relationships through the provision of a variety of online social networking tools; and  emphasise the importance of measuring impact, keeping information relevant and up to date and how this can be effectively managed online.”

Carol Tappenden, Managing Director, Greater Good SA, and some of the organisations staff introduced the new Greater Good website and the different ways of giving it provides for.

Greater Good did various evaluations to determine the needs of givers and organisations:

-         wordiness, confusing languages etc was a problem
-         a lot of action not enough giving
-         people stumbled across organisations by chance, and was then not able to find them again
-         high number of once of given
-         people don’t ‘see’ what options are available; especially not on the right menu
-         lack of relationship management
-         learning curve for using site too steep
-         not enough automation
-         process was not clear enough
-         no donations on first visit
-         site was focussed on the receiver and not on givers!
-         Feedback to givers was not good enough
-         Repeat givers included the process into their budgets

International research show that the following is important

-         understand givers
-         giver relationship management is critical
-         trust integrity etc critical
-         innovative ways of evaluating return on investment
-         increasing utility for NPO
-         giver fundraising online I a growing theme
-         let givers monitor own giving
-         field is ‘maturing’
-         micro-financing as means to give
-         customer service key on both sides
-         incorporate Web 2.0 technologies
-         Messiness of complex sites is a problem


“Greater Good wants to create a culture of connected individuals who experience the gift of giving responsibly as part of an ongoing lifestyle towards social profit”

In order to make this more successful they had to create a new user experience strategy with the giver in the centre. This was called the ‘Giver’s Journey’ and hopefully will get giver’s to function in a mature lifestyle integrated way

 Research has shown how important language is in presenting philanthropy to prospective givers. (Social Profit Organisations, Non Profit organisations, Charities, Causes). It was also important to create more of a doing website that a reading one and use some of the social connectivity tools to create a network and opportunities for conversation. Important points considered is seeing others, seeing the context and seeing yourself.

 The Journey of Givers are linked to a Receivers Journey and the processes and tools of Greater Good SA make both the journeys as simple as possible.

 This is a wonderful opportunity for all qualifying organisations – I want to encourage all of you to register your organisations and also those of you interested in giving to register and hopefully to channel your donations also to CABSA and CARIS!  I plan to have us registered very soon!

Closing Plenary Session: Changing ICT Environment - Challenges and Opportunities for the South African NGO Sector

 This session reflected on changes in the local and international ICT environment and highlight the implications in this regard for NGOs and civil society in general.

 Damaria Senne, Senior Journalist, IT-Web chaired the panel discussion. Participants include:

  • Lyndall Shope-Mafole, Director General, Department of Communications
  • Godfrey Mokate, Chief Executive Officer, National Development Agency (NDA)
  • James Theledi, Chief Executive Officer, Universal Service and Access Agency of South Africa (USAASA)
  • Chose Choeu, Law and Corporate Affairs Director, Microsoft SA
  • Anriette Esterhuysen, Executive Director, Association for Progressive Communications (APC)
  • Daniel Ben-Horin, President, CompuMentor  

 Some points raised include:

-         The uptake and access to ICTs need to be expanded and civil society needs to play a central role in this process together with government and business.
-         Poor communities need to understand that ICTs can be used to address poverty
-         Service providers need to explore innovative ways in addressing access to technologies
-         Civil Society Organisations need to be part of the exciting developments and opportunities available such as SANGOTeCH and Unlimited Opportunities
-         The world is moving to a point where global civil societies are seen as having increased power and strength and where collaboration is becoming more important.
-         Civil Society Communities and networks are becoming more important to other sectors – we need to leverage this to strengthen our organisations
-         Civil society should play a role in holding key role players accountable
-         Civil Society and Government should not alienate each other, especially when ideological matters are at stake, but deal with the issues on the table.
-         Partnerships should be evaluated independently
-         The policies of government has not converted to uptake and access to ICTs. It is important to look at the full global situation. Although cost is a factor, Government uptake of ICTs in developing countries drive uptake and access of the public – so the South African government should be encouraged to increase their uptake.
-         Access need to be integrated to community needs, development goals, content and training.
-         It is not always easy to measure the use of ICTs and particularly the use of ICTs for development.
-         Partnership between research organisations and grassroots project for transfer of knowledge is crucial
-         We need to monitor more than numbers but also impact and outcomes.
-         Collaboration in South Africa is at an interesting point.  Due to the history of South Africa, we have a situation where NGOs capacitated government as well as business and there are unique collaboration opportunities.
-         We need to explore and utilise the huge potential of mobile phones
-         There is still a luck of trust on the continent in the NGO sector – we in SA need to play a role in changing these perceptions.
-         NGOs need to assist government in achieving the principles of BBBE
-         We need to understand the telecommunications act.
-         Environmental issues and global warming can be a strong unifying issue.
-         Stay focussed on your values and mission, but take time to consider what your organisation’s role is in the wider ICT and development world
-    We need to find the balance between gathering information and action

Closing Remarks

 Microsoft donated three laptops which was presented to the lucky draw recipients.

 Khehla Shubane of the SANGONeT Board of Directors made the final comments and gave a vote of thanks to all involved.

Final comments from me:

The SANGONeT website will provide more and more detailed information if you are interested in this very exciting field.  Blogs and presentations are available.

Once again this was a wonderful opportunity for growth, but also a sobering experience when I think of all the challenges. I hope that I will be able to convert this knowledge into better access to information for all of you.


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Adding Value to Global Health-RelatedEvents: Eight Simple Twitter Tips. 18/12/2013

Inis Communication


The use and popularity of social media have thrown open the doors of global health-related events. Now a statement made during a conference plenary, a new health policy set by a government, or a funding decision by a major donor, can all be read about, watched or heard by thousands of interested onlookers all over the globe: in an instant.

If this sounds liberating and transparent, hold your excitement for a moment. Much of the opinion and information deluge from global health events does not come from affected people or communities, health workers, researchers, or even from small to medium sized organizations, but from large, well-resourced organizations. Sadly, the great promise of the internet to allow people to ‘speak their world’ and keep their leaders accountable has so far been largely left behind in the race to stake out social media ‘territory’.

This brief guide provides eight simple tips to make the most of one social media platform – Twitter – around the next global health event on your calendar. It was prepared by @francetim and @GlobalHealthTom in collaboration with Citizen News Service and was launched at the recent International Conference on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific. It aims to help tip the balance of discussion back towards individual and local priorities.

Comments and suggested improvements are warmly welcomed. We are also pleased to adapt the guide (free of charge) for any forthcoming health-related events you are organizing (i.e. by adding the event hashtag, logo etc.). Just send an email or comment below to let us know. 

To save, just right click and select 'save image as'. We can also provide the guide in other file formats if needed, such as this PDF version.


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HIV and Health Communication: Evidence Review. 24/04/2015

Published at Health Communication Capacity Collaborative

Behavior, such as going for an HIV test, is influenced by multiple factors or social determinants, often simultaneously. These include knowledge and attitudes about testing, perceived risk of HIV infection, self-efficacy to protect oneself from HIV, emotional reactions such as fear of transmitting HIV to an unborn child, and perceived social and gender norms around testing, among others. Understanding these behavioral drivers helps us influence them and better appreciate the complexities underpinning human decision-making. Strategically designed communication around HIV and AIDS, often referred to as social and behavior change communication (SBCC) or health communication, can influence all these factors in a positive direction.

Health communication goes beyond the delivery of a simple message or slogan to encompass a social process. People typically have more information than they can process and often do not make decisions taking all costs and benefits into account. Even after people accept information, they do not always act on it. Reducing barriers to action and making the long-term benefits of a behavior, adherence to ART for example, salient in the short term can enable people to take action and seek much-needed HIV-related services.

Among the powerful tools employed by health communication programs are community-level activities, interpersonal communication, quality counseling, information and communication technologies, new media and mass media. Health communication interventions are more likely to succeed when they use multiple coordinated communication elements to reach people with consistent high-quality messages through a variety of channels. When trying to understand the process of behavior change or develop an intervention, it is important to consider all levels of influence and related factors/determinants from the individual to structural while also relying on existing theories and comprehensive models to guide our work.


Figure 1: Kaufman, M.R., Cornish, F., Zimmerman, R. S., & Johnson, B. T. (2014). Health behavior change models for HIV prevention and AIDS care: pratical recommendations for a multi-level approach. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 66, S250-S258.

Figure 1 outlines the various influences on behavior change at each level of the socio-ecological framework based on behavior change interventions related to HIV prevention, treatment and care.

Communication can be used to create health-seeking behavior, on the demand side, and as a means to improve the quality of in-service counseling, on the supply side. In the context of HIV, communication can motivate people to use condoms, seek voluntary medical male circumcision, get tested, obtain their results, promote access to treatment, link people living with HIV to care, support retention in care and help reduce stigma. The evidence in general points to health communication interventions as being cost-effective in achieving behavior change in many contexts, at least relative to the alternatives.

Research consistently shows evidence-based communication programs can increase knowledge, shift attitudes and cultural/gender norms, and produce changes in a wide variety of HIV-related behaviors.

With that said, communication interventions alone cannot overcome the challenges of HIV and AIDS in the absence of high-quality prevention and care services. But by the same token, biomedical interventions alone are unlikely to succeed without communication support that improves quality services and counseling, publicizes and explains these services and improves provider–client interactions, among other things. There are many complementary roles that health communication and biomedical prevention and care programs can play with numerous opportunities for synergy.

The database is a compendium of evidence to date that demonstrates the impact of health communication on HIV-related outcomes including:

  •  HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC)
  • Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC)
  • Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT)
  • Treatment Continuum
  • Condom Use
  • Other Prevention

Using data to ensure scientifically sound investments will yield the greatest impact, the evidence outlined here makes the case for the value of health communication across each core HIV intervention area as defined by PEPFAR 3.0.  To reach the ambitious targets defined by PEPFAR and other global bodies, strategically deployed health communication is essential to improve HIV-related outcomes as demonstrated through the evidence in this resource. We hope this evidence is useful in your planning and implementation of high-impact interventions and approaches and welcome additional evidence for inclusion.

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A Toolkit for Community Dialogues. 14/01/2015

Published at Soul City
Written by Mvuyisi April
1 January 2011

PDF Size 337KB - Download here

This toolkit provides basic steps for communities to engage in school governance and community participation processes through community dialogues. It encourages readers to consider their school community and think about what is happening that a dialogue - for example, a dialogue on budgets - could address.

It was published by the Community and Citizens' Empowerment Programme at the Institute for Democracy in Africa (IDASA) in collaboration with the United Kingdom's Department for International Development Right to Know, Right to Education Project. The Right to Know Project is working towards transparent and accountable governance in Africa by promoting children's rights to quality basic education through strategies including facilitating access to information and participatory rights-based budget processes.

According to the publication, a dialogue is a forum that draws participants from as many parts of the community as possible to exchange information face-to-face, share personal stories and experiences, honestly express perspectives, clarify viewpoints, and develop solutions to community concerns. Unlike debate, dialogue emphasises listening to deepen understanding. It is designed to develop common values and allows participants to express their own interests. In dialogue, participants can question and re-evaluate their assumptions as well as learn to work together to improve relations.

The toolkit includes of the following sections:

  • 1. Community Dialogues
  • 2. Issues for Discussion
  • 3. The Role of the Host Partner in Dialogues
  • 4. Getting Started: Steps in Organising Dialogues
  • 5. Expected Country-Specific Outputs
  • 6. Documenting
  • 7. Effective Media Advocacy and Lobbying
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Communication Toolbox: Practical Guidance for Program Managers to Improve Communication with Participants and Community Members. 30/03/2015

Published by Soul City
26 August 2013
PDF Size: 1.8MB
Download here

Published by Catholic Relief Services (CRS), this Communication Toolbox offers practical guidance for programme managers who want to communicate more effectively with project participants and community members. Designed for emergency and development interventions, the toolbox focuses on communication about a project’s progress as a way to improve accountability to communities. This toolbox was inspired by CRS' experience in Haiti, where the agency observed that relatively simple, low-cost activities that promoted transparent communication substantially improved programme effectiveness. Interventions that did not emphasise the importance of sharing information with communities often faced challenges in implementation.

The toolbox includes of the following contents: 

  • Introduction
  • Template: Develop a communication plan in nine steps
  • Facilitator's notes: How to work with staff to develop a communication plan
  • Worksheet: Choose which communication methods to use
  • Tips: Implement your communication methods
  • Tips: Include communication responsibilities in job descriptions
  • Handout: Why develop a communication plan?
  • Case study: How a resettlement program in Haiti used a communication plan to improve results
  • Checklist: Standards for communication in emergency situations
  • Checklist: Standards for communication in development programs
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Community Conversation Toolkit (for HIV Prevention): HIV/AIDS: What Are You Doing about It? 14/01/2014

Published by Soul City
1 December 2010

Download per chapter here in multiple African languages

C-Change developed the Community Conversation Toolkit - a set of six materials on HIV prevention for low-literacy audiences - to assist communities in the southern Africa region to initiate discussions around key drivers of HIV. The materials are designed to help low-literacy audiences "make meaning" for themselves of the information on key drivers of HIV and AIDS.

These interactive formats (listed below) are designed to mobilise adults, aged 20 and above, in communities to take action toward HIV prevention. The toolkit is intended to complement existing HIV prevention activities and address several key drivers of the epidemic: concurrency, cross-generational sex, gender-based violence, and alcohol abuse.

Materials in the Community Conversation Toolkit include:

  • "Facilitator’s Guide;
  • Community Mobilizer’s Guide;
  • Community Mobilizer’s Cards;
  • Roleplay Cards;
  • Storytelling Finger Puppets;
  • Promotional Proverbs and Best Kept Secrets Throw Boxes;
  • Promotional Playing Cards; and
  • Dialogue Buttons.”

Already adapted in six countries in Southern Africa, C-Change has adapted the toolkit for Nigeria. The materials were pretested in Nigeria with intended audiences in Cross River and Kogi states. Stakeholder consultations were also conducted with government counterparts, donors, and partners for technical input and buy-in. The Nigeria version and other country versions are available on C-Hub through the link below.

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Tasankha! Facilitator's Guide. 14/01/2014

Published by Soul City
Written by Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

PDF-size 13.8MB - Download here

This discussion guide for facilitators is designed to promote community dialogue around health and wellness issues in Malawi. In particular, it seeks to create an understanding of specific issues regarding HIV transmission and prevention and the values, beliefs, and practices that prevail in Malawi culture and how the two are related. It is hoped that this discussion will help change behaviors at the personal and family level, as well as lead to collective community action.

The guide was produced as part of the Tasankha! Campaign, which promotes family values and positive behavioural choices in addressing multiple concurrent partnerships as a key driver of new HIV infections in Malawi (see Related Summary below for more information). It contains a set of participatory learning activities written in a modular format. There are ten themes in total, each consisting of a variety of activities. The interactive methodologies used can help community members adapt their behaviour so that they stay healthy and enjoy a happy and healthy life.

The ten themes are as follows:

  • Theme 1: Couple communication and improving sexual satisfaction - why and how to communicate with each other
  • Theme 2: Concurrent sexual partnerships - what is a sexual network? What does it mean to me?
  • Theme 3: Prevention with positives - why and how to communicate with each other
  • Theme 4: Prevention of mother to child transmission - what is PMTCT? And why should men be involved?
  • Theme 5: HTC and couple counselling - what is it? how does it work?
  • Theme 6: HIV discordant couples - what is discordancy and how does it happen?
  • Theme 7: Gender norms - what is it and how can we avoid discrimination?
  • Theme 8: Male circumcision - what is it? how does the procedure work?
  • Theme 9: ART support and treatment - how to stay on treatment? How to get support?
  • Theme 10: Post exposure prophylaxis - when to take it? How does it work?
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The Role of Community Conversations in Facilitating Local HIV Competence: Case Study from Rural Zimbabwe. 14/01/2015

Published by Soul City
Written by Catherine Campbell, Mercy Nhamo, Kerry Scott and Claudius Madanhire
1 April 2013
PDF-size 272KB - Download here

This journal article examines the potential of using community conversations to strengthen positive responses to HIV in resource-poor environments. Guided by a facilitator, community members collectively identify local strengths and challenges and brainstorm potential strategies for solving local problems. Researchers conducted a series of such community conversations in Zimbabwe to promote critical thinking and action planning in response to HIV/AIDS, and test the strategy using the concept of community-level HIV/AIDS competence as a lens for analysis. The study found that community conversations hold great potential to help communities recognise their potential strengths and capacities for responding more effectively to HIV, but contextual factors such availability of treatment, poverty, poor harvests, and political instability can help or hinder communities' response plans.

The theoretical framework of community competence is described as follows. "An HIV competent community is one in which people are able to work together to support appropriate accessing of HIV testing and treatment, the provision of compassionate care for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), open and non-stigmatizing discussions of HIV, and concrete strategies to prevent new infections." Community involvement and the ability to engage in critical thinking about local challenges and strengths is at the core of the concept of HIV competence as it helps to support behaviour changes and collective action. During community conversations, members engage in dialogue but also generate action plans. The conversations "have an explicit 'problem solving' agenda, aiming to spur critical thought that enables people to formulate local solutions to local issues."

Researchers conducted 18 community conversations (CCs) in two locations, with 6 groups participating in 3 conversations each. During the sessions, participants were asked to "reflect on how they were responding to the challenges of HIV, both as individuals and in community groups, and to think of ways to better support openness about HIV, kindness towards people living with HIV and greater community uptake of HIV prevention and treatment."

The first section of the article outlines how community conversations helped contribute to HIV competence.

  • Conversations enabled participants to develop concrete, practical action plans to better cope with HIV: The "findings suggest that the CCs were effective in supporting participants to jointly come up with possible new strategies to cope with HIV: participants brainstormed how better to care for PLWHA, how to reduce HIV stigma and how to encourage prevention, testing and treatment." The article notes that participants reported that some of these plans were put into action, people felt more empowered to be able to do something about HIV and AIDS, and people who were already caring for PLWHA benefited from being able to speak to others about their experience.
  • Participants were encouraged and challenged by involvement of outside facilitators: The article explains that while many "community conversations" engage local facilitators from the community, this intervention used facilitators considered to be from outside. "Community members appeared to trust and relate to them but also expressed respect for them and gratitude that they had come to the region and cared to help. Their presence seemed to appeal to participants and strengthen the effectiveness of the conversations..."
  • CCs constituted a forum in which people could develop sense of community, common purpose : Overall it was found that community conversations allowed people to discuss strengths and challenges, boosting a sense of common purpose. While it is noted that these conversations take place among people who already consider themselves as community, "the process helps to deepen a sense of purpose and working together."
  • CCs encouraged participants to move from passive recipients of HIV-related information to active problem solvers:Participants expressed that there was already significant local knowledge about HIV within their community, however the CCs helped people to develop a sense of their own capacity to do something, "they expressed a lack of collective agency to move from information to action."
  • Community conversations reduced the silence and stigma surrounding HIV:As people discussed their own experiences, it became apparent that everyone was in some way affected by HIV. The conversations helped encourage discussion and break the silence that left people feeling like they were alone in what they were experiencing. It also helped to bring living with HIV and caring for PLWHA out of the private sphere and into the public.

The second half of the article discusses how HIV competence is influenced by many factors which can facilitate or hinder the outcome of community conversations. For example, the availability of anti-retrovirals enabled people to be able to implement their actions plans to help support PLWHA. Unfortunately, on the other hand, poverty, poor harvests, and political upheaval made it difficult for people to implement their action plans. While the community had the good intentions of helping to support PLWHA, their own lack of resources, especially scarce food from poor harvests, made this difficult.

The article concludes that "findings suggest that conversations may create social space for people to reflect on the possibility of more effective responses to HIV, but a host of other factors will intervene in shaping whether such reflection leads to concrete behaviour change." However, despite these challenges, the researchers "remain confident that our conversations were successful in the modest aims which we set them – to create spaces in which people might 'break the silence', think critically about obstacles to effective responses and brainstorm action plans. Such dialogue is a vital, if not a sufficient, precondition for health-enhancing behaviour change."

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Communication Means Participation and Inclusion, WACC General Secretary Tells Europe Meeting. 1/4/11

Reconfiguring communication in the ecumenical movement means discovering, seeking and implementing new forms of communication

1 April

Frankfurt/Main, Germany. Reconfiguring communication in the ecumenical movement means discovering, seeking and implementing new forms of communication, the General Secretary of the World Association for Christian Communication (WACC) has told a gathering in Frankfurt, Germany.

"As communicators we have become pilgrims in space - and sometimes in cyberspace - who have embarked on a long journey, by no means complete, from the old concept of uni-dimensional, one-way communication to the current multi-dimensional, multi-way approach that emphasizes reciprocity and equality," said the WACC General Secretary, Rev. Karin Achtelstetter, in her 31 March address.

Achtelstetter was giving the opening presentation - on "reconfiguring communication in the ecumenical movement" - at a seminar organized by the WACC Europe Region as part of its one-every-three-years general assembly.

WACC is a Toronto-headquartered global organization that promotes communication for social change. The Frankfurt seminar - from 31 March to 1 April - has as its theme, "Communication and Reconfiguration in Faith, Media, Society and Economy".

The aim of the seminar is to take stock of recent changes in the media, church, societal and economic landscape in Europe, and focus on the implications of these changes for WACC’s principles of communication as well as the communication tasks for churches and Christian organizations and the coverage of religion in the media.

In her address, Achtelstetter noted that the word configuration is often used in astrophysics and she compared the ecumenical movement to the Milky Way.

"Despite its diversity and its vastness the elements are held together by a large-scale magnetic field," she stated. "The galaxy is in constant movement and in rotation - doesn't this description remind you of the ecumenical movement?"

With this image in mind, she continued, reconfiguring communication in the ecumenical movement suggests "discovering, seeking and implementing new forms of communication with an openness to new shapes and constellations".

She said, "If we want to reflect about how to reconfigure communication in the ecumenical movement, then the first thing to do is to identify our communication barriers and then in a second step to dismantle them."

Illustrating this, Achtelstetter drew on the experiences of Robert Geisendörfer from Germany, and Farajah Zawadi, from the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Born in 1910, Geisendörfer was a key figure in rebuilding Protestant church media in West Germany after the Nazi dictatorship and the Second World War. He founded the Frankfurt-based Association for Protestant Media (GEP), was a WACC treasurer, and a founder of WACC Europe.

One of his key statements was, "Communication in the sense of participation and inclusion is a part of life … If you cannot communicate, you are disenfranchised, manipulated by the other, you are turned into an instrument instead of a creative being."

Zawadi works for SAMWAKI, an association of rural women in the DRC that runs a WACC-funded community radio station - Radio Bubusa FM - focussing on key issues around rural women's rights and community development, including discrimination, reproductive health, gender-based violence and HIV/AIDS. The radio station operates from South Kivu, an area described in 2007 by a United Nations rapporteur as having the worst situation ever seen for violence against women.

Achtelstetter recounted how she met Zawadi two weeks earlier at the WACC Africa region assembly in Kigali, Rwanda. Zawadi had travelled 19 hours by bus from the DRC to attend the assembly.

The WACC General Secretary said that if Geisendörfer lived today, "he would see how Farajah Zawadi and her colleagues ensure that rural women are empowered by access to information, training and communication in a country that has seen a great amount of violence".

Women from Radio Bubusa - the name describes a cry used by women to wake each other up to work in the fields - "are living," Achtelstetter said, what Robert Geisendörfer preached - with every word they broadcast, they demonstrate that communication is about participation and inclusion and that it is an essential part of life".


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Adaptation of Health Communication Material Dealing With Cultural Diversity.

Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication. 2004 . Download This paper introduces some of the considerations necessary in expanding a single country programme into a regional programme, based on the experiences of Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication (Soul City), a South African based non-governmental organisation (NGO).

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Communications and Marketing Kit

 Communication Toolkit. This Communications and Marketing Kit has been compiled by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation to help non-profit organizations use communications to achieve their social change goals. The toolkit includes both references and specific, detailed steps necessary to understand options, identify resources, plan, implement, and evaluate the effectiveness of strategic communications for your organization. Download

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Guide to Managing ICT in the Voluntary and Community Sector

The Guide to Managing ICT in the Voluntary and Community Sector is produced by the ICT Hub to help voluntary and community organisations (VCOs) make best use of information communication technologies (ICTs).The guideis intended particularly for staff and volunteers from small and medium-sized organisations and especially for those people who don’t have access to ‘paid for’ technical advice and support. Download

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MultiMedia Training Kit.

HIV/Aids Journalism and Communication Skills Handout. These materials are part of the Multimedia Training Kit (MMTK). The MMTK provides an integrated set of multimedia training materials and resources to support community media, community multimedia centres, telecentres, and other initiatives using information and communications technologies (ICTs) to empower communities and support development work. Provides good guidelines on dealing with the media. Download
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Positive Deviance Approach for Behavior & Social Change

This introduction to PD walks through the steps involved in using the approach - known as the "6 Ds of Positive Deviance". Jerry Sternin developed this presentation for use during training and workshops around the world, using illustrative examples at each step.
Download PPT

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Strategic Communication for Community-Driven Development: A practical guide for project managers and communication practitioners. (DevCom) 2005.

Community-Driven Development (CDD) is an approach that provides communities and local governments control over decisions and resources that affect their development.

It engages and empowers people through a participatory process of local development. The strategic use of communication tools and techniques to assess
obstacles to the process and use information effectively is crucial since the CDD approach relies primarily on people and strives for their empowerment.
This practical guide was developed through wide consultation with a group of Task Team Leaders and communication specialists who have incorporated communication interventions in their projects. They also have a wealth of knowledge, experience, and ideas on how to best use communication tools and effectively integrate a comprehensive communication program in CDD operations.
Download PDF (1.86 MB)
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Effective NPO Networking. 01/02/2013

In this article, the author explores the real meaning of networking in the nonprofit context and offers tips on how to make it work for nonprofit organisations.

Networking has become the new buzzword in the nonprofit sector. Ask anyone and they will tell you that they are serious about networking. Donors also demand it to avoid duplication and maximise the sharing of scarce resources. All sorts of forums have mushroomed lately to promote networking and build partnerships. But when you ask people to tell you what they understand by networking, then the most common response is ‘it is about connecting with people’. When I ask people to tell me what they regard as the fundamental elements of networking, then they look confused. As far as they are concerned, networking is networking. It is about connecting with others to ensure your access to all kind of resources in a time of financial crisis. Everybody is doing it! Well, the fact is that you can network by default or by design. People not trained in professional networking do it mostly by default. The result is a hit and miss approach, ending up in frustration as they try to connect with all and sundry.

Common myths about networking:

  • Networking is about connecting with others and who you know. Wrong! It is about who knows you and wants to know you. Thus is why it is so important that you need to know what you have to offer uniquely within your networks. What makes you stand out? Thus you avoid becoming a ‘net-beggar’ (also a name dropper) instead of a true networker;
  • Networking is about accessing resources and knowing what you want.Wrong! It is firstly about knowing what you can share and with who you want to share it. Everything else is secondary;
  • You network with an organisation. Wrong! You network with an individual who is the face of an organisation. The organisation is abstract, the individual is real. That is why you need to know as much about that individual who will then allow you access to that organisation.

When you network by design, there are six elements of effective networking to remember:

  • Have a network strategy: Why do you need to network, with who, what do you have to offer that is unique (the wow factor), what is your plan?
  • Everybody in the organisation must be trained in professional networking: Since we are all networkers every day, all staff, board and volunteers must be trained in networking;
  • Have a dedicated network coordinator: This is a person who is responsible to drive and implement your network strategy. All members must report to this person the results of your networking activities;
  • Allocate resources: any strategy requires resources to be implemented in terms of time, money and human resources. Networking must reflect as a line item in your budgets;
  • Review your strategy constantly: No plan is perfect and must be tested against reality. You must therefore constantly review the results of your networking strategy and make strategic choices about the allocation of resources to implement your strategy;
  • Not an afterthought in meetings: When you take networking seriously, then you have it as a standard item on your meeting agenda and not bring it up as an afterthought. Reports must be submitted about new connections, new opportunities, resources shared and accessed, etc.

Author(s): Frank Julie is an organisational development practitioner, activist, consultant, advisor, strategist, facilitator and author. This article first appeared in the 7th edition of the People First Foundation newsletter.

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Investing In Communities Achieves Results: Findings from an Evaluation of Community Responses to HIV and AIDS



Before the scale-up of the international response to the AIDS pandemic, community responses in developing countries played a crucial role in providing services and care for those affected. This study is the first comprehensive, mixed-method evaluation of the impact of that response. The evaluation finds that community response can be effective at increasing knowledge of HIV, promoting social empowerment, increasing access to and use of HIV services, and even decreasing HIV incidence, all through the effective mobilization of limited resources. By effectively engaging with this powerful community structure, future HIV and AIDS programs can ensure that communities continue to contribute to the global response to HIV and AIDS.

View full report pdf

Authors: R Rodriguez-García, Republished

Publisher Information: World Bank 

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Community Mobilisation Manual (Advocacy Expert Series).

According to the guide, community participation does not happen by itself. It must be stimulated, encouraged, and facilitated. This book is addressed to those who are seeking tools, ideas, and approaches to facilitate the mobilisation of communities around a cause. This "how-to" book is intended for community mobilisers in Tanzania who want to stimulate social change in a community to work towards poverty eradication, good governance, and increased transparency. The manual identifies key steps in the community mobilisation process; it also stresses the role and responsibility of the community leader or coordinator of an activity, community networks, and other civil society groups, including groups of local citizens. It contains information about preparing to mobilise, including knowing your goals and your target. It discusses recognising, articulating, and assessing the problem. It further explores accessing support, and provides information about some additional resources.

 Download PDF (   444.73 KB)
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Coordinating with communities. Guidelines on the involvement of the community sector in the coordination of national AIDS responses (2007) International HIV/AIDS Alliance.

These guidelines aim to strengthen the active and meaningful involvement of the community sector in the development, implementation and monitoring of coordinated national AIDS responses. The guidelines provide practical options – including standards, structures, processes and methods – from which stakeholders can select those most appropriate and useful to their own contexts.  Download PDFs:

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Developing Effective Coalitions: An Eight Step Guide.

Developed by the Prevention Institute. To avoid groups floundering, which erodes faith in collaborative efforts, people need to sharpen the skills that are necessary to build and maintain coalitions. This paper contributes to the discussion of group processes by offering an eight step guide to building effective coalitions. This paper is written from the perspective of an organization considering initiating and leading a coalition but can be helpful to anyone eager to strengthen a coalition in which he or she participates. Download.

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Engaging Faith-Based Organizations in HIV Prevention: A Training Manual for Programme Managers UNFPA (2007).

UNFPA has embarked on a number of joint initiatives with faith-based organizations to address the spread of HIV and to fight the stigma often directed towards people living with the virus. The Fund's engagement, dialogue and partnership with faith-based organizations have yielded results that have been mutually beneficial to UNFPA and religious institutions' and, most important, have improved the lives of the people they serve. The aim of this training manual is to encourage policy makers, programmers in the field and development practitioners to recognize the complex social, cultural and economic factors in HIV prevention and to partner with faith-based organizations to address them. The ultimate goal: to advance the ICPD agenda and reverse the spread of HIV. Download PDF (4,740 KB)

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Networking Toolkit based on the CINDI Networking Model.

May 2007 (CINDI Starting a journey together as a network can be a rewarding experience. Together you can reach places you would never reach by yourself. Networking is a way of sharing resources and building one another up. Being part of a network journey can also help you to grow as a person and as an organisation, and can help you to feel less alone as you work in the demanding fields of HIV and AIDS or development. This Toolkit hopes to inspire people to work together more effectively. It aims to give you some practical tools for starting your own network. Download PDF (2222 KB)

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Networking: Getting Started (Foundation for Human Rights)

Basic information about Networking online.Available here:

- Networking : What
- Networking : Why
- Networking: How
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Monitoring and Evaluation


 Monitoring and Evaluation: Monitoring refers to an ongoing process of assessing whether the process of planning and implementation is proceeding on target; evaluation, usually done at the end of a specified phase or at the end of the project/process, is an assessment of whether the various goals and objectives have been met. (

 Evaluation is systematic determination of merit, worth, and significance of something or someone using criteria against a set of standards. Evaluation often is used to characterize and appraise subjects of interest in a wide range of human enterprises. Wikipedia.

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"More of an art than a science": Challenges and solutions in monitoring and evaluating advocacy. 24/02/2014

Published at Intrac
Written by Sarah Rose
24 February 2014
PDFsize: 366kb (also available in Russian)

“More of an art than a science”: Challenges and solutions in monitoring and evaluating advocacy ImageHow to monitor and evaluate advocacy work as part of development interventions is a significant challenge faced by many advocates. So what are some of the possible solutions? Building on a series of papers, conferences, training and learning from INTRAC consultancy work, this paper aims to share and learn from an INTRAC monitoring and evaluation (M&E) workshop held in 2013. It draws on four case studies presented at this workshop and offers eight key points that organisations should consider when designing an advocacy M&E system, as well as an annotated list of resources and reading materials. 

Download here - in Enlish
Download here - in Russian


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A Brief Review of 20 Tools to Assess Capacity by Capacity Development. 08/2005

A Brief Review of 20 Tools to Assess Capacity by Capacity Development Group Bureau for Development Policy at UNDP.

This Resource Catalogue on Capacity Assessment Tools is a brief review of twenty tools is meant to serve as a preliminary resource for development practitioners in the area of organizational capacity assessment. It is exhaustive in neither breadth nor depth of tools studied.

Twenty tools were surveyed, drawing from publicly available resources of non-profit organizations, management consultancies, United Nations agencies and other donor organizations. The purpose or application of these tools varies from thematic, institutional or enabling environment levels. Inclusion of a tool in this review does not imply endorsement by the UNDP. Capacity Development Group Bureau for Development Policy.(12p;110.18 KB)  Download

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A Framework for Monitoring and Evaluating HIV Prevention Programmes for Most-At-Risk Populations. 2008

(UNAIDS), is intended for program managers and others involved in planning and implementing M&E programs for MARP at both national and sub-national levels. It is also aimed at those who use information to plan and improve policies and programs. The MARP guide presents an organizing framework that can be used to identify the information necessary for planning, monitoring, and evaluating HIV prevention programs for most-at-risk populations. The framework is also a useful tool for organizing a collective, coordinated and unified response to information gathering by national or sub-national programs and all their partners and donors. Rather than focusing solely on indicators, as many previous guides have done, the MARP guide promotes a strategic planning approach and the use of M&E data for decision making at all levels.

Original 2007 Download (PDF, 338KB)

1st reprint, December 2008. Download (PDF, 96p; 1.49 MB) 

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A Tool for Sharing Internal Best Practices. 2005

This tool, developed by the INFO Project, includes a step-by-stop process, tips, case studies and links to additional resources that explain how an organization can more effectively share its own best practices internally. This tool reviews what a best practice is, the benefits of sharing best practices, and some obstacles to sharing. It then outlines a process for identifying your organization's best practices, validating and documenting them, and preparing a plan to share them throughout your organization.

Download (PDF 212,21 KB, 23p.)

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Building Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting Systems for HIV/AIDS Programs. 04/2005

This publication is an easy-to-use manual designed to assist NGOs/FBOs/CBOs in developing a monitoring, evaluation and reporting (MER) framework for HIV programming with “how-to” sections on adopting this framework to the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief M&E requirements. The document includes chapters on the basic principles of MER, results-based MER, and indicators as well as providing worksheets that serve as a useful guide. The manual additionally provides practical data protocol sheets that guide NGOs/FBOs/CBOs on adapting their MER systems to the President’s Emergency Plan indicators. This manual was developed and field-tested through partial funding from Pact’s Global Community REACH and Pact South Africa programs which provides support to over 80 local organization partners implementing HIV/AIDS programs.


Download (PDF 587.75KB, 136p.)

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Conducting In-Depth Interviews: A Guide for Designing and Conducting In-Depth Interviews for Evaluation Input. Monitoring & Evaluation 2.05/2006.

Pathfinders International. In-depth interviewing is a qualitative research technique that involves conducting intensive individual interviews with a small number of respondents to explore their perspectives on a particular idea, program, or situation. They are useful when you want detailed information about a person’s thoughts and behaviors or want to explore new issues in depth. Interviews are often used to provide context to other data (such as outcome data), offering a more complete picture of what happened in the program and why.

Download PDF (151.98KB, 16p.)

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DFID Guidance On Using The Revised Logical Framework. 02/2009

How To Note.  A DFID Practice Paper. February 2009

The UK Department for International Development (DFID) works with a wide range of partners from long-term arrangements with partner governments and multilateral organisations to short-term humanitarian aid projects funded through NGOs. DFID's interest is in ensuring that each is devised and delivered in the most efficient and effective way and links to identified objectives set out in a Divisional Performance Framework or Country / Regional Plan.
This guidance has been written for DFID project workers and DFID partners, and focuses on helping to make the best use of the logical framework (logframe) in designing and managing projects. It was partly informed by reports that highlighted weaknesses in existing logframes. The new designed format aims to address those weaknesses by encouraging the identification of objectives at the right level, more robust specification of indicators, increased coverage of baseline and target information and better quantification of results.
The guidance applies to any one involved in the design approval or active use of the logframe and all DFID projects of a value of one million pounds and above. Additional guidance in annexes has been provided to help the reader form a broader picture of what is involved in putting together a logframe. 
Download PDF (37p; 740.45 KB)


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Embracing Innovative Practice. Monitoring And Evaluating Capacity And Capacity Development. 09/2006

Many years of experience in the field had led David Watson to question the value of monitoring and evaluation. Recently, a range of innovative to M&E approaches has given him new hope. He explains why in this article.

Download PDF (38.33KB), 8p.)

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FHI Inventory of Program Evaluation Tools and Guidelines

Family Health International has compiled an inventory of guidelines, frameworks, and manuals that provide users with instructions and step-by-step guidance to conduct program evaluations and inform program design and improvement.  

The material is grouped by category of user:  
* all users,  
* program managers, 
* evaluation specialists in community-based organizations,  
* international and nongovernmental agencies,  
* researchers, and  
* governments.   
This inventory is specifically relevant because it specifically addresses how to facilitate the use of data that is generated by evaluation research. 
 The Inventory of Program Evaluation Tools and Guidelines can be found here.
Program evaluation is a complex necessity in all health programming. All program funders now require that programs have strong evaluations to guide their development, implementation, and ongoing fine tuning or improvement; and that these evaluations go beyond the simple reporting of activities and results to the funding agency. Implementing agencies are being asked to collect information to guide their program design and to use ongoing evaluation data to shape and mold the program as it is being implemented.
Implementing agencies are also being asked to gather information and data that can tell the story of their communities and programs and the context of observed changes. Implementers are being asked to answer a series of key questions: Who is this community? What does this community need? How is this program addressing these needs in a culturally competent manner? How is the community being affected or changed as a result of the implementation of this program or set of programs?
However, not enough people in the field have had the educational training or in-the-field experience to know what information to collect and how to do it in a way that yields accurate and useful results. In order for agencies to state that their programs are being successfully carried out, it is no longer sufficient to merely ask a handful of clients or program participants what they liked and did not like. More structure and rigor is being demanded of all implementing agencies.


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Handbook on Monitoring and Evaluation for the CINDI Network. 2006

The design of the M&E framework is an initiative that follows on from an initial 2 year project funded by the Rockefeller Brothers Fund (RBF) which assisted Members with organisational development, strategic planning and monitoring and evaluation. The different sections draw on information that was distributed at learning sessions to promote understanding of M&E concepts and processes. Some of the issues raised by participants are also included as there was a genuine effort to make the system relevant to the CINDI Network and the environment in which it works.

Download PDF (370KB)

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Handbook on Planning, Monitoring and Evaluating for Development Results. 2009

United Nations Development Programme (2009)
Authors: Kasturiaracchi,A. ; Eriksson,T. ; Rodriques,S. ; Kubota,A.

Planning, monitoring and evaluation in development requires a focus on nationally owned development priorities and results and should reflect the guiding principles of national ownership, capacity development human development. This handbook is aims to enhance the results-based culture within UNDP and improve the quality of planning, monitoring and evaluation. While written with UNDP staff, stakeholders and partners in mind, the handbook provides a useful overview of why and how to evaluate for results which can be used in other contexts.
This handbook concentrates on planning, monitoring and evaluating of results in development and is designed to be used as a reference throughout the programme cycle. The handbook covers the following areas:  

* the integrated nature of planning, monitoring and evaluation, and describes the critical role they play in managing for development results
* the conceptual foundations of planning and specific guidance on planning techniques and the preparation of results frameworks that guide monitoring and evaluation
* how to plan for monitoring and evaluation before implementing a plan and issues related to monitoring, reporting and review
* an overview of the UNDP evaluation function and the policy framework, including key elements of evaluation design and tools and describe practical steps in managing the evaluation process

The handbook also presents practical steps and examples in using knowledge from monitoring and evaluation in managing for development results. Annexes include an evaluation terms of reference template, a list of international evaluation networks, guidance on how to select evaluators, a management response template, an evaluation report template and some useful further resources for evaluation.  

Download PDF (232p; 2.19MB) 

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Monitoring and Evaluation Network of Training Online Resources

Through MENTOR (Monitoring and Evaluation Network of Training Online Resources), MEASURE Evaluation makes available free training materials and tools on M&E topics for use by researchers, program managers, trainers, policy makers, students, and other public health professionals.

These materials were developed by global experts in order to provide state-of-the-art information on monitoring and evaluation (M&E) topics.

Materials include a Interactive mini-course on M&E Fundamentals, Downloadable Training Materials and Population Research Materials.

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Monitoring and Evaluation Systems Strengthening Tool. 01/2007

MEASURE Evaluation, January 2007.

By Ronald Tran Ba Huy, Karen Hardee, J. Win Brown et al.
This publication provides an monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems strengthening tool which can help all reporting entities under government programmes and donor projects to assess the strengths and weaknesses of their M&E systems, including data collection and reporting, and highlighting areas for improvement that might require additional focus, funds and/or technical assistance.

Download PDF (50 p. 2.2 MB)

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Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation of Community - and Faith-Based Programs : Second Edition CORE Initiative. 2006

Designed for use by local implementing agencies, this book demonstrates how using monitoring and evaluation can improve the impact of community interventions on HIV/AIDS. It is a step-by-step guide to making community-level HIV and AIDS services.

Download (3.67MB, 94p.)

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Preparing a Case Study: A Guide for Designing and Conducting a Case Study for Evaluation Input. Monitoring & Evaluation 1. 05/2006

Pathfinders International Tool Series.

A case study is a story about something unique, special, or interesting—stories can be about individuals, organizations, processes, programs, neighborhoods, institutions, and even events. The case study gives the story behind the result by capturing what happened to bring it about, and can be a good opportunity to highlight a project’s success, or to bring attention to a particular challenge or difficulty in a project.

Download PDF (154.96KB, 16p.)

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Program Evaluation.

Part of the National Minority AIDS Council “Organizational Effectiveness Manuals Series”.  This manual demonstrates the importance of program evaluation with regard to the development of HIV/AIDS interventions.

A current challenge facing HIV/AIDS service providers is to document, validate, coordinate and integrate their programmatic activities. All of these components can be addressed with the implementation of a comprehensive evaluation program. Evaluation is the system used to assess the worth or merit of a program. This general definition, however, does not take
into account descriptive studies, implementation analyses, and formative evaluations. A better-suited definition would incorporate the information processing and feedback role of evaluation. An alternative definition of evaluation is the systematic acquisition and assessment of information to provide useful feedback about a program.

Download PDF (5.43MB, 69 p.)

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Result Based Project Monitoring and Evaluation: Using the Logical Framework. 2007

Local Livelihoods Ltd.,
Edited by Sally Hunt. 

This toolkit provides an outline for the monitoring and evaluation of development projects and programmes. It uses a Result Based Management, Monitoring and Evaluation system focussing on the higher level objectives/outputs and not the lower level activities. This approach uses the Logical Framework as the basis for the project design, the monitoring indicators and the assumption and risk analysis.

  Download PDF (31p.; 397 kB)

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Template for HIV Prevention Evaluation. 2009

Template for HIV Prevention Evaluation Terms of Reference. Quick Reference Guide
The UNAIDS technical working group on prevention evaluation developed a guidebook to facilitate the planning of evaluations for HIV prevention. NGO participants at a review and testing workshop (carried out in Nigeria, September 2008) expressed the need for there to be a shorter, more simplified version of the terms of reference (ToR) template that could be referred to and used by NGO staff commissioning evaluations, but not necessarily evaluation specialists.
Using the template as a basis, the International HIV/AIDS Alliance in collaboration with the World Bank has compiled this six page quick reference guide to be used as a stand alone document to write a ToR for a prevention evaluation.  
The guide is primarily intended for use by HIV and AIDs service providers from civil society organisations such as programme managers/officers and monitoring and evaluation advisers.
Download PDF; (548.0KB; 6p)
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Using Mystery Clients: A Guide to Using Mystery Clients for Evaluation Input . Monitoring & Evaluation 3. 05/2006

Pathfinders International.

Mystery clients are trained people (usually community members) who visit program facilities in the assumed role of clients, and then report (by completing a survey or through an interview) on their experience. They might be used in an effort to avoid the bias in the service delivery process that often results from having service transactions observed. Mystery clients can also serve to gather a sufficient number of observations of service transactions when the actual volume of service visits is low.

Download PDF (159.08KB, 20p.)

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W. K. Kellogg Foundation Evaluation Toolkit.

This toolkit is designed to provide our grantees with guidance as they undertake evaluating and learning from their work. It is targeted primarily at those grantees who will be working with an external evaluator or conducting their own rigorous internal evaluations, but we believe anyone who is seeking to design a useful evaluation can benefit from it.
The tools and approaches in this toolkit are based on our mission and evaluation philosophy and built upon our Evaluation Handbook. The toolkit has seven sections (the links to these sections are located in the left hand column and are available on every page of the toolkit):
  1. Where to start: Describes some of the first issues to address in beginning an evaluation.
  2. Evaluation approaches: Gives some detail on different approaches to evaluation and how they are related to hiring an evaluator and designing the evaluation.
  3. Evaluation questions: Gives suggestions on developing the questions that will guide the evaluation work.
  4. Evaluation plan: Provides details on the major components of an evaluation plan, including data collection and analysis, reporting, and assuring use of findings.
  5. Budgeting: Shows how to create an initial evaluation budget.
  6. Hiring and managing evaluators: Suggests things to consider in selecting and managing the best evaluator for your project.
  7. Additional resources: Links to useful on-line resources on evaluation.

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Legislation and Registration of NGOs in South Africa


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Codes of Good Practice for South African Non-profit Organisations (NPOs)

The Code of Good Practice is comprehensive, but it does not provide detailed standards of conduct. Office bearers of nonprofit organisations are responsible for the effective and efficient management and administration of their organisations, and also the maintenance of discipline according to their constitutions. Recognising that these codes will be used by a wide variety of nonprofit organisations, operating under many different circumstances, the text is broad ranging and in a style that makes the code understandable and useable.

The Department of Social Development has developed these codes in keeping with the
requirements of the Nonprofit Organisations Act of 1997, in consultation with a representative number of nonprofit organisations throughout South Africa. These codes are the result of a shared vision for what constitutes good practice in leading and managing nonprofit organisations of all sizes across all interest sectors, with a particular focus on governance, administration, fundraising and the donor community

Download this document here (319.25KB, 52pg)

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Guide to the Nonprofit Organisations (NPO) Act

This booklet is part of a series of booklets which focus on the laws which are relevant to NPOs. It discusses the Non-Profit Organisations Act, a new law that came into operation during 1997, which is relevant to the establishment and regulation of NPOs.

Access this document as an HTML here

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Non-Profit Organisation Annual Reports. In Terms of the Nonprofit Organisations Act, 1997(Act No, 71 Of 1997)

The accompanying guideline will help registered Non-profit organisation office bearers (Chief Executive Officers, or governing body Chairpersons, or both) prepare and submit their annual narrative and financial reports to the Department of Social Development’s Non-profit organisation's Directorate.

These two reports together tell the story of your organisation’s activities, its income and expenditures for the past year. The reports must reach the Directorate within nine (9) months of your organisation’s financial year end. We urge you to adhere to this timing. Please indicate any difficulty you may be having well in advance of the date.

Download this document here (115.82 KB, 9pg)

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A Concise Guide to the Nonprofit Organisations Act 71 0f 1997. What Nonprofit Organisations Must Know. (2009)

A concise guide to the Nonprofit Organisations Act no. 71 of 1997 (the Act) was published by Inyathelo – The South African Institute for Advancement, in October 2009 and is available as a free download

The Act aims to create a supportive and enabling environment for the non-profit sector.  Inyathelo’s guide to the Act will assist non-profit organisations (NPOs) in making sense of the legislation and providing clarity on the implications of it for NPOs.

Topics covered in the guide include which organisations can register and how, benefits and impacts of the Act on registered NGOs, and what happens if a registered NPO fails to comply with the Act.
The guide includes a list of useful resources for NPOs related to legal compliance and good governance and including a Founding Document Compliance Checker – which is a practical tool for organisations to determine whether they have included all the necessary elements in their founding document (ie. the constitution of the organisation).

Click here to download the guide (PDF, 12p, 172.79KB.)


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Application to Register a Non-Profit Organisation.

Information about the process in South Africais is available here

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Making Sense of the Alphabet Soup. 3/4/2013

Valuable Summary for NPOs in South Africa from Greater Good

Because of the number of regulatory, compliance and taxation mechanisms that apply to civil society organisations in South Africa (not to mention the alphabet soup of acronyms), there is a great deal of confusion around legal and tax status. Most people tend to conflate legal entity with official registration, compliance and tax exemption status. But all these things are quite distinct.

Legal entity

Not for profit organisations in South Africa can be established in three forms:


An agreement between three or more people to achieve a common object which cannot be profit-making, usually used by small community groupings because there is no requirement for registration with a public office. It is regulated by common law, rather than statute, and must meet three requirements:

  • Demonstrate perpetual succession (to be able to continue despite a change in membership)
  • Be able to hold property distinct from its members
  • Declare that no member can have any rights to the property of the association.


Established in terms of the Trust Property Control Act of 1988 when ownership of property is transferred to another party, to be administered for the benefit of certain people or the achievement of a particular goal. The structure is often used for Wills because it is tax efficient. A founding trust deed must be lodged with the Master of the High Court who polices the duties of the trustees. Trustees can only act in their capacity as trustees after having been authorised by the Master in writing.


Trading companies registered with the Companies and Intellectual Property Commission that are incorporated for a “public benefit purpose” and whose income and property may not be distributed to the incorporators, members, directors or officers, except for reasonable compensation for services. These used to be known as Section 21 companies until The Companies Act, No. 71 of 2008 came into operation in May 2011. 

This table summarises the differences between legal entities. Only the first three would be able to apply for Non Profit or Public Benefit Organisation status. Click on the table to download it as a pdf.

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Registration and compliance

So now that you have established what your legal entity is, you can look at the registrations you may have - this is your status.


The Non Profit Organisations Act of 1997 (the NPO Act) provides for a voluntary registration facility for non profit organisations. The NPO Act replaced the apartheid-era Fundraising Act of 1978 which was often used to suppress the fundraising activities of organisations opposed to the state. It is no longer a precondition for a Public Benefit Organisation (which enjoys tax exemption status) to register with the Directorate of Non-Profit Organisations. However, most foundations and CSI departments expect to see an NPO registration certificate and number. Foundations or Organisations that receive funding from the United States of America always require NPO registration to comply with the Patriot Act.

The Act defines a non profit organisation as “a trust, company or other association of persons established for a public purpose and the income and property of which are not distributable to its members or office-bearers except as reasonable compensation for services rendered”.

To register as an NPO, organisations must:

  • Be not for profit
  • Have a legal personality distinct from its members (a body corporate)
  • Not be part of government
  • Provide their founding document/s and complete an application form to demonstrate the above.

Online registration has recently been made available on this website:  A registered non profit organisation is issued with a certificate of Registration and an NPO number, which is considered proof that the organisation is registered. An NPO is required to reflect its registered status and registration number on all of its documents.

Registered NPOs must:

  • Keep accounting records of income, expenditure, assets and liabilities
  • Draw up financial statements within six months of their financial year-end
  • Submit an annual report to the NPO Directorate which includes an Accounting Officer’s report (financial statements) and a prescribed narrative report of activities.
  • Inform the NPO Directorate within one month of any changes to the names or physical, business and residential addresses of their office-bearers or registered address of the organisation or any appointment of office-bearers.

If an organisation fails to comply, it can be deregistered by the NPO Directorate.


While NPOs are governed by the NPO Directorate, Public Benefit Organisations (PBOs) are the domain of the South African Revenue Service’s Tax Exemption Unit (TEU) as set out in the Income Tax Act of 1962.

The benefits of being a PBO are:

  • PBOs do not pay income tax
  • PBOs do not pay donations tax
  • People donating to PBOs can get a tax deduction on their donations. 

To qualify for approval as a PBO, organisations must have as their sole or principal object, one or more Public Benefit Activities. These activities are listed in detail in the Ninth Schedule to the Income Tax Act, 1962 and fall into the following categories:

  1. Welfare and Humanitarian
  2. Health Care
  3. Land and Housing
  4. Education and Development
  5. Religion, Belief or Philosophy
  6. Cultural
  7. Conservation, Environment and Animal Welfare
  8. Research and Consumer Rights
  9. Sport
  10. Providing of Funds, Assets or Other Resources
  11. General

The legislation now provides that a PBO can (under certain conditions) grant funds to voluntary or informal groups of people even if these groups have no formal founding document or status. The promotion of political objects is not considered to be for the public benefit. 

Public benefit activities must have an altruistic or philanthropic intent and should not promote the economic self-interest of any person, aside from reasonable remuneration (salaries). At least 85% of the activities of a PBO must be for the benefit of residents of South Africa. In special circumstances (for example, in emergencies), the Minister may relax these limits and allow more than 25% of the activities to be carried on outside the country. Donations received from organisations or donors not resident in South Africa are not subject to these restrictions.

Being a registered NPO is not enough to get tax exemption. Organisations are awarded public benefit status if they:

  • Have at least three people, who are not connected to each other, accept the fiduciary responsibility of the organisation – in other words, no single person can control the decision-making in the organisation.
  • Do not directly or indirectly distribute any of their funds to any single person.
  • Use their funds for the benefit of the general public.

The investment of surplus funds is allowed but the income from the investment must only be used to further the object of the PBO itself and not benefit a particular person. A PBO may not, on dissolution, distribute any of its funds to individuals or other tax-paying entities.

PBOs must submit an annual return for assessment together with an audit certificate confirming that all donations received or accrued were used for the object/s of the PBO. If a PBO is found to be non-compliant, SARS can revoke PBO status and any related tax exemption.


South Africa is quite unusual in allowing Non Profit Companies - which are registered with, and governed by, the Companies and Intellectual Property Commission (CIPC) - to register as non profit or public benefit organisations. This means that you can generate an income just like any other for-profit company. BUT, NPCs must:

  • Have a minimum of three ‘incorporators’ who must sign the Memorandum of Incorporation (MoI)
  • Appoint a minimum of three directors
  • Use all income and property to advance its objects as set out in the MoI - profits can not be paid to directors, except in reasonalbe exchange for services (salary packages)
  • Comply with a special set of rules for non profit companies. For example, on dissolution, non profit companies must distribute their assets with certain restrictions. Most of these special rules take the non profit nature of the company into account and are aimed at making compliance and auditing less burdensome.

Non profit companies must submit annual returns to the CIPC and register any change in directors’ details.

For more information, visit: - Basic Guide to Income Tax for Public Benefit Organisations


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The ABCs of Taxes in the Nonprofit Sector

Both South African nonprofit organisations and donors can enjoy tax benefits if the former are registered as Public Benefit Tuesday, April 9 - Author(s): Hoosen Agjee - Published: Sangonet

Many charities do not realise or understand the benefits of being registered as a public benefit organisation (PBO), Hoosen Agjee explains.

In our many years working with the nonprofit sector (NPO) sector, we have identified that a significant number of organisations are still unaware of the specific tax benefits available to them,’ says Hoosen Agjee, managing director of Turning Point Consultants (TPC) and author ofTax Benefits for the Nonprofit Sectorand A Guide to the New Companies Act and Nonprofit Organisations.

In fact, he adds, “There’s a common misconception that an exemption from Income Tax and certain rates are perhaps the only benefits available to the sector’. Agjee says that, “All is not lost for NPOs who haven’t been tax efficient in the past.” TPC has designed a system tailored specifically for such organisations, measuring the quantitative impact of such inefficiencies, and more importantly focusing on practical solutions to remedy this. With many organisations experiencing significant reductions in donor funding, these savings and recoveries have also opened up an additional recurring income stream for NPOs.

When Agjee published his first book,Tax Benefits for the Non Profit Sector, in August 2002, the general comments received from NPOs included:

  • What has tax got to do with NPOs?
  • As an NPO we are exempt from taxes – we don’t pay taxes;
  • We have an NPO number therefore we can access all the tax-benefits; and
  • As we are a Section 21 company, we can issue our donors tax deductible certificates.

‘These comments could not be further from the truth, he says.

What is a Nonprofit Organisation (NPO)?

An NPO is any entity (whether formally registered or not) which carries out activities in a nonprofit manner.This means that any surplus or gains that the NPO makes will not be distributed to any individual, member or trustee of the organisation but shall be for the benefit of such organisation. NPO activities could relate to social, religious, educational, welfare and the list goes on. The fundamental requirement is that the NPO should not promote the economic interest of any individual or employee. Therefore, most or all organisations may be regarded as NPOs if they meet these criteria.

What are the benefits of an NPO number?

The NPO Act regulates NPOs in South Africa. Once an NPO meets the requirements of the NPO Act, it may apply to the Department of Social Development and on qualification, the organisation will be issued with an NPO number which results in the following benefits:

  • Public recognition;
  • Promotes good standing;
  • Transparency and accountability in activities; and
  • Promotes access to government and corporate funding. 

However, an NPO number does not give the organisation any tax benefits.

Unlocking tax benefits

Our government, recognising that NPOs play a significant role in society, has designed specific tax benefits and exemptions to assist NPOs in meeting their objectives. Their principal aim is to ensure monies that are required to provide goods and services, which are generally for the benefit of the poor and needy, are not trapped as a tax cost.

Obtaining a tax exemption

The Income Tax Act defines the types of activities that an NPO can undertake before it is granted a tax-exempt status. Inaddition, the NPOs’ founding documents must comply with the requirements of the Act. NPOs that meet these requirements can take advantage of the tax benefits to reduce their tax burden and obtain other benefits. Obtaining a Tax exemption is not automatic. An application must be made to the South African Revenue Service (SARS) who, on review, will grant the NPO a tax exemption status. Once tax exemption is approved by SARS, the NPO obtains a Public Benefit Organisation (PBO) status.

Who can access tax benefits?

To access the tax and other benefits, the NPO has to be classified as a PBO and must undertake PublicBenefit Activities (PBAs).

What is a PBO?

A PBO is any welfare, religious or cultural body, private school, bursary fund, charitable body, charitable trust or sporting body approved by SARS. The PBO can be structured either as a nonprofit company (commonly known as a section 21 company), a trust or an association of persons.

What are Public Benefit Activities (PBAs)?

SARS has defined different fields of activities that a PBO can undertake for it to qualify for tax exemption. These activities are known as PBAs and are classified under:

  • Welfare and humanitarian;
  • Religion, belief or philosophy;
  • Cultural;
  • Health care;
  • Education and development;
  • Land and housing;
  • Conservation, environment and animal welfare;
  • Research and consumer rights;
  • Sport; and
  • Provision of funds to other PBOs 

Tax benefits to donors

Donors also benefit when donating to a PBO compared to any other organisation.By donating to a tax-exempt PBO, the donor may achieve, among others, the following tax benefits:

  • 20 percent donations tax;
  • 20 percent estate duty; and
  • 10-14 percent capital gains tax. 

To further incentivise donors to donate towards certain PBAs, government has also introduced additional tax savings to donors.Where a donor donates cash or in kind to PBOs, which are conducting certainPBAs, the donor will also achieve income tax savings by claiming a deduction of the donation against their taxable income.

Claiming tax deductions from SARS

Where donors have made donations to those PBO’s limited to conducting PBA’s under the following categories:

  • Welfare and humanitarian;
  • Healthcare;
  • Education and development;
  • Land and housing;
  • Conservation; and
  • Environment and animal welfare.

They obtain income tax benefits because they can be issued with tax deduction receipts from that PBO (knownas an 18A certificate). The donors may then use these receipts to claim their donations as tax deductible expenses from SARS in their annual income tax returns. PBAs of a religious or cultural nature (such asart galleries and museums), and sportand recreational bodies do not qualify for an 18A status from SARS and consequently cannot issue 18A receipts for these donations.

Who can claim and how much canbe claimed?

All donors - including salaried employee, a company or close corporation - can claim this deduction from SARS. The claim is however limited to 10 percent of the donor’s taxable income. The donation can be in the form of cash or in-kind (e.g. a supermarket may donate groceries and still qualify for this tax benefit).
Donors prefer tax–exempt charities

There are thousands of NPOs all competing to get their share of donor funding. A tax-exempt PBO stands a better chance of getting donor funding than one that doesn’t have this status. Tax exemption is a win-win situation for both donor and recipient because:

  • The donor gets the satisfaction that, where an organisation is tax-exempt, every cent of the donation reaches the targeted beneficiary instead of it being earmarked for taxes and duties;
  • The organisation’s expenditure is reduced by the tax saved and it can use the savings for its activities; and
  • The donor achieves income tax benefits on donations made to section 18A PBOs. 

About the Turning Point Consultants

Turning Point Consultants (TPC) began as a consultancy practice established more than 25 years ago. As a multi-disciplinary firm, TPC offers a comprehensive and seamless tax recovery and related consultancy service tailored specifically to meet clients’ needs while delivering value added benefits for the NPO sector.

- Hoosen Agjee is director at Turning Point Consultants. This article first appeared in the Downes Murray International’s Fundraising Forum electronic newsletter. He can be contacted on 083 282 8786 or 031 208 2458 or e-mailed to

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PRISMA Partners


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PRISMA Capacity Building Program.

This part of the website is an element of the capacity building programme of the Prisma Foundation.

Prisma is an association of Christian development organizationsthat consider poverty alleviation part of their communal responsibility. HIV and AIDS is a central aspect of the work of many of these organisations. In 2004, an extensive consultation process and investigation was launched including the Prisma organisations involved in HIV and Aids, and their partner organisations addressing the pandemic in Southern Africa. In this process an need for organisational capacity building was identified. 

On this Capacity Building Site you will find information about:

The Partners. Read more about the northern and southern organisations involved and their dreams.We have information on most of the Southern Partners involved.

Project Management. Find tools and tricks to help run your project more efficiently and effectively, covering the planning, implimentation and monitoring phase. This will help you make the right moves at the right time.

Financial Management.  Learn all about the finances of an organisation, how to budget, manage your finances and keep records.  

Human Resource Management. Managing full time, part time and contract staff and volunteers. Find Policies and Procedures to help manage all involved to reach their full potential. 

Training for Service delivery. Information on specific service delivery areas can be found troughout this website.  Find information about Prevention, Care of orphans and Positive Living.


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About the Partners.

The annual evaluation and planning meeting was held at Kopanong in November 2007.

The following organisations form the 'Northern' part of the capacity building partnership:
Bijzondere Noden/ZGG
Trans World Radio (OREON)
You can read more about the partners in the South on their sub pages.
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eThembeni (Place of hope)

eThembeni is a training centre that is erected to supply in the need for holistic, affordable training to Christian volunteers, coming from disadvantaged, rural communities. Training must empower them to be a healing, hope generating resource to those infected and affected by HIV and Aids. Training focuses on care, prevention and minimising the effect of HIV and Aids on the community

The logo says it all:  

•            The Aloe is an indigenous plant to KZN, with amazing healing qualities. We have a dream that trained volunteers will like wise contribute to the healing of their own communities.
•            The thorns and bitterness of the Aloe reminds of the pain and suffering, due to HIV and Aids, that is so visible in our community. As believers we can never just turn a blind eye.
•            The seven leaves remind us of the Biblical symbolic number seven, symbolising completeness. This inspires us to render a service that will be wholesome and to the glory of God.
•            The cross goes right through the Aloe, to the roots. The Christian faith is the driving force of all the volunteer services rendered from this centre. 
•            The three red flowers remind of God triune, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, without whom, we believe, there is no hope.

Facilities available at eThembeni

•            Well equipped kitchen where catering for 80 people can be done. 
•            Lecture room, fully equipped, to accommodate 80 people .
•            Dormitories to sleep 40 people.
•            Ablutions to supply in the needs.
•            Lounge on the stoep.
•             Well secured, in peaceful part of town.
•            1km from nearest taxi stop at Frame factory
•            Here people from rural areas can be trained in an affordable, modern equipped facility, without having to travel far distances every day. The atmosphere is calm between indigenous Acacia trees.


The project is managed by the Christelike Maatskaplike Diens (CMD) or Christian Social Services and Usizo Aids Trust. Reformed Churches from the Netherlands was involved in the funding of the project.

The CMD/Usizo presents the following courses at the eThembeni training centre.

  • Home Based Care  skills are given to volunteers, who train family members of infected people, who are terminally ill. The Red Cross is the accredited training partner in this project. Forty volunteers are caring for about 200 terminally ill people at home. Volunteers are also trained in Biblically counselling skills, procedures to apply for government grants and correct nutrition.
  • Unemployed members of the community, with focus on youth run households, are trained in Self Help Group skills. They are assisted to form support groups, start saving clubs, that will be eventual resources for capital generating entrepreneurial projects. Focus is on skill training and support. Kindernöthilfe is the partner in this project. Six volunteers are assisting three hundred unemployed people in this way.
  •  Youth teams are trained to do Christian based Life Skill training at local schools. African Enterprise and Scripture Union are the partners in this venture.
  • Crèche teachers from rural poor communities are trained in Early Childhood Development (ECD) and child evangelism. Through this project ninety teachers are assisting 4500 pre-school children to be intellectually and morally equipped for the future. Many of these children are orphans, in the care of the extended family. Khula ECD Trust, in partnership with the local FET college, supplies the training.
  • Church leaders are trained in skills to lead their churches in becoming more caring, open communities, regarding to those infected and affected by Aids. CABSA (Christian Aids Buro of Southern Africa) supplies the training material. 
  • Church leaders are trained in conducting funerals, counselling and sound hope generating Theology in the contexts of HIV and Aids. iKhwezi Theological Seminary is our partner, who supplies the training material.
  • Professional Social Workers  are employed and one is occupying an office at the centre. Six social auxiliary workers are employed, of whom one is stationed at the centre. This service provides professional support and mentoring to the project and is subsidised by the department of social development. 
  • The centre is also a collection and distribution point for all donations in food, basic disinfectants, body lotion, immunity boosters and clothing . These are distributed by volunteers to those in need. A register ensure that donations are distributed correctly.
  • Volunteers are also frequently called in for moral and spiritual support in the centre.


How can the churches and community become involved?  

  • Many businesses already showed good will in supplying services at cost price.
  • Pray for the project. Pray that the volunteers will be supported and motivated in the face of so much despair and misery and that they will also have a support base through the rendering of services.
  • Donations in food, disinfectants and body lotions are always welcomed. Monday mornings are good days for such donations, since the workers are often in the community. Receipt is acknowledged. Donations are combined to form “parcels of hope”, that is distributed to those in need. 
  • Khula ECD Trust is in need of training aid for school readiness programmes. They make it from waste card board, egg containers and office scrap paper.  
  • Be informed about the facts regarding HIV and Aids. Be involved and supportive to those infected and affected.

Contact details:


Christian Social Services/Usizo

Tel: 036-6311185


41 Gelofte street, 



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Family Life and Aids Education Ministry was founded in response to the pressing need for sound Biblical teaching on Family Life and the AIDS pandemic. FLAEM was registered in Malawi on 17th March 2000 under the Trustees Incorporation Act.

Read the most recent report from FLAEM Seminars added on 2 May 2008 below.

As an inter-denominational Christian Organisation, FLAEM is managed by a Board of Trustees with the primary aim of transforming family life and changing the sexual behaviours and practices of people in the target villages in accordance with biblical norms and values. It works mainly with churches to reach out to the youth, traditional leaders, church leaders, couples, men and women. 



It strongly believes that faith is the most effective tool for changing behaviours as well as risky cultural practices and beliefs. It is the conviction of FLAEM that once people understand the Biblical perspective of family life, they will enjoy the blessings of family life and also avoid contracting the AIDS virus through marital and ex-marital affairs.



FLAEM sees communities in Malawi and Mozambique being positively transformed and rising above the scourge of AIDS. This happens through sound biblical teaching, discipleship and HIV/AIDS education that FLAEM provides, and also teaches others to do.
Marriages and families are strengthened; churches reach out and care for those in need; harmful cultural practices cease; children and youth understand their value and are equipped to make good life decisions. Behaviour is changed and the spread and impact of HIV/AIDS is increasingly reduced.  

“FLAEM provides HIV/AIDS education and biblical teaching on marriage, the family and sexuality. FLAEM’s facilitators train and mentor church leaders, church members, school teachers and community leaders, empowering them to be agents of compassion and change in their communities." 


Currently FLAEM is working in Milange , Mozambique and Mulanje and Thyolo in Malawi. There are twenty paid staff and over five hundred volunteers in all the three projects.
The approach used by FLAEM has also been adopted by Ghana Institute of Linguistics Literacy and Bible Translations (GILLBT). FLAEM has also assisted the Reformed Church of Mozambique at Villa Ulongue in Tete Province to establish a Bible-based HIV/AIDS work.
In Malawi, FLAEM has assisted several institutions to establish Bible based approach to HIV/AIDS work. These include Stephanos Children’s Home and Livingstonia Synod Aid Project of the CCAP in the North.   

Contact Details:
Lloyd Kha!nyanga
Box 30596
Phone: 265 8 841619


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Family Impact


Legalities: Family Impact is registered in Zimbabwe as a Trust (Registration Number 72/2002), in The United Kingdom as a Charitable Trust (Registration Number 1092759), and in Kenya as a Trust (Registration Number OP 218/051/2003/0409/2961).

Vision: Family Impact exists to spread a passion for the supremacy of God in family life and relationships.

Mission: Empowering individuals, building families, transforming communities and mitigating the spread and impact of HIV/AIDS through research, development and implementation of innovative, evidence based, cost effective, accessible and culturally appropriate programs.

Ministry Partnerships: In order to achieve rapid and effective coverage of the continent of Africa with its programs, the organization actively works with churches and Christian organizations so they are capacitated to implement Family Impact programs in their locality. In this regard Family Impact has actively cooperated with other organizations and was instrumental in the formation of the Pan African Christian Aids Network (PACAnet), which is a coalition of Christian organizations working in the AIDS prevention and care arena, and the Christian AIDS Task Force (CAT), a coalition of Zimbabwean Churches in the Matabeleland Region that seeks to coordinate the Christian response to the AIDS pandemic. We also work closely withScripture Union Africa, and who are our primary link in West Africa. SUWA (Scripture Union West Africa) in Jos, Nigeria presents Family Impact programmes to schools and adults throughout the West African region. In each locality whether East or West Africa, Scripture Union takes the material and adds in cultural examples and changes to ensure we remain culturally sensitive and relevant at all times, without compromising either the message or the gospel.

Programme Information: Family Impact programs are aimed at strengthening the family unit. In this regard, the organization has developed and run several programs across Africa aimed at primary and secondary school children, young adults, married couples, parents, men in the work place, and churches. Some of the programs have won wide acceptance in Africa. Typically the programs consist of literature, training manuals, video and audio materials, camps and teaching seminars. Family Impact implements the ‘Training of Trainers’ method to ensure as many as possible are able to receive the materials that they offer. The following contains a list of some of the programs that Family Impact has developed, (for detailed information please see our website for details):

§ Adventure Unlimited –

o Programme Info: a lifeskills course for 10 – 14 years olds. It equips young people to prepare confidently for their teenage years and adult life as they grow up in today’s world. A 7 part video, a Leaders Guide, a set of picture cards for presentations and ‘The Adventure of Life’ (a follow up booklet for the children to enjoy) are all available in this series.

§ Choose Freedom -

o Programme Info: Choose Freedom is a Lifeskills course for teenagers, with an accompanying video drama that explores the issues facing teenagers in Africa today and examines the emotions and feelings behind their choices. There is a handbook for leaders, which is available in French and English. This course explores many topics over the 8 weeks, such as building self-image, communication and family relationships. However, the video focuses mainly on the issues of love, sexuality and relationships with the opposite sex.

§ Adventure Leadership –

o Programme Info: character building camps, with initiative test, outdoor team building activities and a series of talks aimed at equipping young people as leaders in their generation. The format of using camps is effective to bring young people away to practically use their leadership skills in team building environments, as well as receive coaching on the core aspects of (particularly) servant leadership.

§ Radical Relationships

o Programme Info: a hand book for couples thinking about engagement and marriage or singles wanting to know God’s plan for dating and courtship. The material can be used for: -
o One day workshops for leaders on Premarital Counseling
Marriage preparation meetings for Engaged Couples or,
o Independent Bible Studies for Couples thinking about Engagement & Marriage

§ Enjoy Your Marriage

o Programme Info: this marriage enrichment course is based on a manual which offers leaders (once they have received the teaching) to train others in the materials. The material has traditionally been used for weekends away, but also day seminars, and within fellowship groups. There is a series of 5 bible reading notebooks for couples to continue the journey together after the course.

§ Positive Parenting

o Programme Info: a series of 9 work books have been developed by FI for the teaching of parenting skills, both to parents as well as carers, teachers and youth leaders. There is both a video and DVD available to accompany the course.

§ Freedom Unlimited

o Programme Info: a programme designed specifically for men in the workplace. A life-skills training programme is a series of interactive seminars focusing on bringing about long term behaviour change. Freedom Unlimited Life skills training programme was developed for men in the workplace, specifically in industry, farming & mining communities

Regions of Operation: Offices in Zimbabwe, Kenya and Uganda; currently establishing a base in Zambia. Official partnerships with organisations in, Tanzania (FOTA), Ghana (FI), and the Cameroon and closely working with organisations in Nigeria (FCS, ACET, SUWA).

Directors: David and Janet Cunningham (Zimbabwe); Tom and Hellen Malande (Kenya);

Head Office: The Africa Service Centre (Zimbabwe);

East Africa Office: Family Impact Kenya


The Africa Service Centre;

Family Impact,
45 Heyman Road,
Tel: +263 9 251555


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Read More about the organisation below

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Masibambisane (MCDC)

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Full legal name
(business name):
Mukhanyo Community Development Centre
Acronym (where applicable):
MCDC t/a Masibambisane
Legal status:
Association incorporated under Section 21
Company Registration Number
Non-Profit Number
030 – 072 - NPO


Title of the project: MASIBAMBISANE


Summary: (Please Note: A more comprehensive illustrated profile of the organisation is available below) The aim of the project is to help the former KwaNdebele community fight the problems of Orphans and Vulnerable children, AIDS and POVERTY that are devastating their community.

The terminally ill in the community are suffering tremendously. They do not have food, do not have transport to clinics, often there is no-one to care for them.

Patients are not assisted adequately at the local clinics and hospitals and often die very painful and undignified deaths at home. Wounds are not cleaned and become septic. There is no transport to take patients in this condition to hospital and the hospital would only keep them for a day or so and then discharge them anyway.

Many children are attempting to care for their dying parents, washing them and trying to find food to feed them. Children in poverty and those who are orphans also suffer. Unsafe housing is a serious concern.

Main Activities: CURRENTLY our main activities are:

Home-based care:
· Identifying people living with HIV/AIDS
· Training caregivers on site
· Counselling patients and family
· AIDS Education
· Bathing
· Cleaning sores and treating infections
· Identifying illnesses and providing basic medication
· Assisting with medical and other needs i.e. adult nappies, gauze for cleaning sores etc.
· Taking the patients to the clinic / hospital in desperate situations
· Assisting with food parcels where needed
· Assisting with water and electricity in desperate cases
· Assisting with funeral arrangements in selected cases
· Loving and encouraging the patient and the family
· Assisting with the arranging of the will and guardians for the children likely to be orphaned if the patient dies.
· Biblical teaching and discipleship
Step down facility:
Medical resources are made available so that home-based care workers can assist their patients in the following ways:
· Bring their critical patients to see a medical practitioner specialising in the HI Virus to assist with secondary infections and pain control medication. The doctor will be available one day a week.
· 24-hour care for 6 critical patients where the caregiver and the home-based care worker can no longer cope.
· A Nursing sister employed to assist and visit patients with home-based care workers and care for the patients at the hospice.
· Nurses practicing in the community on 24-hour call.
· Basic medication will be provided
· Nutritional needs of patients to be provided for.
ARV Rollout: (20 people):
· Pre/Post Counselling
· Home visits to ensure that medication are taken
· Food Security
· Support Groups
Food parcel project:
· Identifying orphans and vulnerable children in the community.
· Establishing the needs of these children.
· Providing food parcels
· Assisting with electricity and water
· Assisting with school clothes and school fees where needed
· Assiting caregivers to obtain the necessary documents to apply for grants
Foster mother project:
· Training caregivers
· Idenfying foster mothers
· Idenfitying children
· Monitoring the home-situations of the foster families and assisting where possible with any physical/counselling needs
· Making sure the medical and nutritional needs of the children are met
· Running support groups for the caregivers
· Running support groups for the children
Day Care (Drop-In) Centre project:
· Two day care are already running successfully. One in the Vezubuhle Village and the other in Tweefontein B2 (Phumula)
· The following assistance is provided to orphan children at the centre:
1. Breakfast and Lunch for school-going orphans
2. Day-care for children younger than 6.
3. Assistance with homework
4. Psycho-social support
5. Bible Study / Discipleship
6. Team building and games
7. Music & Arts
8. Library
9. Vegetable Gardening Skills
10. Computer Skills Training
11. Medical assistance
12. Support groups for the caregivers
13. Income generation projects for the caregivers
Income Generation
Computer Training:
· A course in basic computer literacy has been offered successfully to 20 students of the Mukhanyo Theological College as well as 80 people from the community.
· The course contents include:
Word-Processing Spreadsheets
Databases Web browsing programs
Vegetable Garden Training:
· A successful vegetable garden project is underway and fits perfectly into this Centre as the people of KwaNdebele are mostly unemployed and their basic nutritional needs are not met on a daily basis.
· The vegetable gardening assists in preventing poverty, malnutrition and unemployment.
· A specific method of gardening called Eco Circle Gardening is taught to the community. This is a water-saving method as many villages have no running water.
Commercial Vegetable Garden:
· Tomato planting in shadenet and tunne
· Other vegetables in open field
· Selling of vegetables


Developmental Objective:

By 2009 the wider KwaMhlanga areas home-based care workers are professional, skilled and equipped and unacceptable levels of suffering of Orphans & Vulnerable Children (OVC’s), People Living with AIDS (PLWA) & People Living in Poverty (PLIP) identified have been improved by 50%.

Immediate Objectives:

1. Ensured food security and clothing for 80% of OVC’s identified
2. Increased access to quality palliative/home-based care for PLWA and their families by 50%.
3. 50% Improvement of access to water & sanitation and safe housing of families in our program.
4. Increased income of 20% for families


Needs and constraints (challenges) in the area of project implementation.
The main problems identified in the wider KwaMhlanga Community are:
1. Many orphans and vulnerable children
2. Tremendous suffering of people living with HIV/AIDS
3. Stigmatization of HIV/AIDS
4. Non-compliancy of TB/ARV medications
5. Hardly any medical assistance for children living with HIV/AIDS
6. Too few social workers and no vehicles
7. Foster grants take up to 2 years to be approved
8. Caregivers and orphans have nothing to eat
9. Lack of basic facilities ie water, electricity, housing, roads
10. Bottleneck for approving foster grants at court
11. Lack of medication in clinics / no doctors at the clinics
12. Lack of medical personnel with HIV/AIDS expertise – especially in diagnosing secondary infections.
13. 70% unemployment = poverty
14. Corruption
15. Cultural beliefs (AIDS is a curse not a disease, cure by sleeping with a virgin etc.)
16. Rape and child abuse
17. Children not attending school
The target group and the reasons for the selection of the target group(s).
Poverty in the wider KwaMhlanga area is vast. From our experience PLWA are suffering and there are thousands of OVC’s receiving no grants or care in this area. There are not many other NGO’s (who have resources and skills) assisting in the wider KwaMhlanga area.
Target group = the wider KwaMhlanga area (KwaMhlanga & Thembisile Municipality)

The number of direct and indirect beneficiaries (to the project) :

Per Annum (Next 2 years)
People Living with AIDS (PLWA) and their families
1 000
Orphans & Vulnerable Children (OVC’s) and their caregivers
1 000
2 000
1 500
3 000

The activities will benefit the target group in various ways (see below).

The quality of life of the beneficiaries is increased in the following ways:

1. Food security and clothing secured for OVC’s
2. Improved emotional wellbeing of OVC’s by the provision of psycho social support
3. Improved health of OVC’s
4. Improved protection of OVC’s
5. Improved educational levels of OVC’s
6. Increased number of facilities / services available to OVC’s and PLWA
7. Improvement of PLWA in food security, medical assistance as well as psycho-social support.
8. Improved HIV/AIDS prevention practices by OVC’s and PLWA
9. Improved access to water & sanitation and safe housing
10. Increased economic empowerment as income generation projects are implemented


(a)Methods of implementation
Day Care Centres – provide a venue in a specific village where OVC’s from that village can come for meals, help with homework, psycho-social support, career planning etc. It also encourages communication between caregivers and OVC’s by providing support group and income generation projects for the caregivers.
Food Parcels – provide food security while social services are processing grants. Help is given with obtaining the necessary document i.e. ID Books, Birth certificates etc.
Foster mothers – provide a mother for OVC’s that have no extended family to care for them. Assistance includes food security, help with homework, psycho-social support, career planning etc. It also encourages communication between foster mothers and OVC’s by providing support group and income generation projects for the caregivers. There is also a support group for the foster children.
Place of safety – According to social services there are no places of safety in the wider KwaMhlanga area. A home that can receive 20 children will be established providing food security, help with homework, psycho-social support, career planning etc.
Job training/income generation projects for caregivers - Caregivers are trained on vegetable gardening, beading, computers etc depending on where their interest lies.
Home-based CareCaring for the physical, medical, psycho-social needs of PLWA ensuring food security
Step Down Facility24 hour for critical PLWA where the caregiver can no longer cope, where children are caring for a parent or no care is given. Providing food security, medical and psycho-social support to PLWA and their families.
ARV RolloutProvding ARV’s for 20 patients and focusing on compliancy support, support groups, psycho-social support and food security.
Job Training/Income GenerationTraining provided on computers, vegetable gardening, building (job opportunities given to builders). Planning full scale entrepreneurship centre next year. Planning a Ndebele tourism village to promote self sustainability.

Contact Details:


Physical address:
Plot 1 KwaMhlanga
Postal address:
PO Box 594
Contact person:
Melanie Prinsloo
Telephone number
013 947 2179/81
Fax number
013 947 2179/81
E-mail address:




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Mfesane, a well-established non-profit organization, has been involved in programmes which empower disadvantaged and poverty stricken people since 1975. Operating as a relatively small organization, Mfesane partners with existing local NGO’s in the development and implementation of projects which fall within their focus areas which include educational enrichment and development, youth development, social care and development, poverty reduction, economic empowerment and leadership development. Mfesane’s partnerships are based on a merging of practical and human resources in order to achieve the objectives of the specific project in the most efficient and cost effective manner. This approach ensures the extensive delivery of services, promotes the development of local non-profit organizations and reduces the need for Mfesane to employ a large staff.

Mfesane serves the Eastern and Western Cape provinces from their bases in:

Cape Town:

Central Office, Bellville: The office accommodates the core functions of management and general development for Mfesane.

KwaMfesane, Community Centre, Crossroads: The Community Centre with its infrastructure is utilised for the Maths Enrichment Project, as well as the Social Care and Child Development Programme serving Crossroads and Khayelitsha.communities.

West Coast:

Masiza branch at the Military Academy in Saldanha is the base from where Mfesane serves the developmental needs of communities, build networks and promote co-operation with other service rendering organisations in the West Coast region. (”Masiza” is a Zulu word connoting assistance to people).

Eastern Cape:

Regional office in Port Elizabeth. From this point it serves all the projects in the Eastern Cape.

List of the Programmes and / or Projects currently being run

Youth Development

Description: Projects and programmes which serve the development needs of the youth.


1. Leadership Development Programme, West Coast, Western Cape
Leadership skills programme for Grade 6, 7 and 12 learners.
2. Life skills project, Eastern Cape
Project at Khanyisa School for Visually Impaired Learners for the purpose of providing life skills and independence training to visually impaired learners.
3. Computer skills training project, West Coast, Western Cape Project which provides computer literacy training to pupils and young adults at St Andrew’s Primary School in Saldanha Bay.
4. High Five Programme, West Coast, Western Cape
A life skills programme targeting high-risk youth between the ages of 13 and 20 from 20 schools (high and primary schools) in the Saldanha Area. The programme accommodates a group of 30 young people in the programme at a time for a period of four weeks. The purpose is to instil and internalise the values of self-worth, self-belief, self-esteem, self discipline and self help. The programme aims to eventually reach 600 young people.
5.Masiphathisane After School Care programme, Crossroads, Western Cape
After school programme targeting 100 primary school learners.

Educational Development and Enrichment

Description: Projects and programmes which serve the needs of schools, including learners, staff, school governing bodies (SGB’s) parents and school communities.


1. Maths Enrichment Project, Crossroads, Western Cape
After-school maths tuition to learners from Grade 7 to 12.
2. Maths Enrichment Project, West Coast, Western Cape
Saturday and holiday programmes which provide maths tuition to learners from Grade 8 to 12.
3. School Development

Mfesane is linked to the following schools for learners with disabilities:

  • Khanyisa School for Visually Impaired Learners, KwaDwesi township outside Port Elizabeth
  • Efata School for the Blind and Deaf, Umtata
  • Reuben Birin School for the Hearing Impaired, Port Elizabeth
  • Lonwabo School for Learners with Special Needs, Port Elizabeth
  • Vukuhambe School for Physically Disabled Learners, East London
  • Noluthando School for the Deaf, Khayelitsha, Cape Town.

Poverty Reduction and Economic Empowerment

Description: Projects and programmes which promote economic development and empowerment of selected target groups with special attention to the needs of the poor, unemployed, disabled and school leavers.


1. West Coast Career Guidance Programme, Western Cape
This Programme provides annual winter schools for entrepreneurs as well as career expos, advice on subject choice and career guidance to learners at schools which serve poor and under-resourced communities.
2. Ubuntu Training and Development Centre, Eastern Cape
Vocational skills training (i.e. sewing, welding and weaving) for blind, deaf and disabled people in order to empower them to become more employable or self-employed.
3. Vocational Skills TrainingCentre, Eastern Cape

Linked to Vukuhambe School for Physically Disabled Children, this project aims to introduce learners to vocational skills such as pottery, leatherwork, sewing and bookbinding.

Social Care and Development


Description: Community based projects addressing the basic needs of the poor and vulnerable groups in society including children and adults in need of care, with special focus on early childhood needs, the disabled, HIV affected and infected persons.


1. Social Care and Child Development Programme, Crossroads, Western Cape
This project incorporates 2 educare centres (Nompumelelo and Mzamowethu).
2. Intliziyo HIV/AIDS education and prevention project, Eastern Cape
Intliziyo project is situated on the Ashby Manor farm near Queenstown with an emphasis on Home Based Care to people and families affected and infected by HIV/AIDS in the surrounding townships and area.
3. HIV/AIDS Education & Support Programme, West Coast, Western Cape
The project is being implemented in the Saldanha Bay Municipal Area and provides both HIV/AIDS education and a mobile counseling and testing unit (VCT Centre).
4. Medical Outreaches, West Coast, Western Cape
The project provides free medical care, HIV/AIDS awareness and educational programmes and soup kitchens for children in very poor communities.
5. HIV/AIDS care, education and prevention, Eastern Cape –

This project implements a home based care and HIV/AIDS prevention programme in the KwaNobuhle, Uitenhage/Port Elizabeth in partnership with Thandi Youth Group in Uitenhage.


Cape Town region and Central Office:
Mrs Nomvuyo L Baba, Managing Director.
Private Bag 2,
PO International Airport,
Cape Town

9B Bellpark Office Plaza,
Cnr Teddington & De Lange Road,

Tel (021) 945 3992/5
Fax (021) 945 3989


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The RCZ Community Based AIDS Program was started in March 2003.

It is active in 5 wards of Masvingo District South. A ward normally has over 500 households.

Read the annual report for 2007, 2009 and the January to June 2006 Report below.

The CBAP trained several volunteers from each village in the wards in HBC/ Orphan Care. In each ward the programme works with a minimum of 20 volunteers and a maximum of 25 volunteers where the communities have villages far apart. The largest ward is 70km in radius. There are Area Supervisors in each ward to ensure an effective monitoring and evaluation of the programme activities. These are part of the volunteers but report to the CBAP office once every month. The CBAP is not so close to the communities it serves. The nearest ward is 50km from Morgenster mission where the CBAP is housed.

CBAP has supported HBC through training of volunteers and district nurses as well as placement of a HBC box at each clinic in the wards. Currently a total number of 282 HBC patients are benefiting and are the updated registered beneficiaries. Volunteers in both Orphan Care and Home Based Care train caregivers on holistic care as well as offering it themselves to both the patients and orphans.

CBAP has supported Orphan Care through training of volunteers and giving practical support for the orphans such as jerseys, blankets and school stationary. The programme is greatly involved in psychosocial support for orphans and children in general so that they are resilient when they face some of life’s adversities. Total number of orphans registered in all the wards under the programme is 1206.

CBAP is sponsored by Oikonomos Foundation, The Netherlands.  Prisma is greatly assisting in capacity building of the staff. The Programme also receives a lot of moral, spiritual and financial support from The Netherlands friends, (Bleiswijk) and The Religion Mission League. Organizational Structure

The CBAP is a department of the Reformed Church in Zimbabwe. The RCZ manages the program via the Board of Advisors. The CBAP is managed on a day to day basis by the program coordinator; Mr. Samuel Mhungu.The financial administration is done by the Accounts Clerk Gladmore Manemere.Tamari Zishamba is the Typist for the Programme. Currently a student from the Midlands State University, Tivaone Matambo is on attachment in the programme since August 2005 for a year. Several nurses of Morgenster Mission Hospital assist in the training of community volunteers. Huibke ten Hove, a Psychologist from Netherlands also assists greatly as a volunteer in psychosocial support training.

Contact Details

Samuel Mhungu

cell no. 011 875 252
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Scripture Union Zimbabwe

PDF icon SU.pdf910.64 KB


Our Vision

A Nation where all know, believe and mature in Christ.


To evangelise children and young people and disciple them through mentorship so as to transform local communities through their obedient application of Godly principles to all spheres of life as they reflect their love for God and Neighbour


1. To make the Good News of Christ known to children, young people and families.
2. To encourage people of ages to meet God daily through bible and prayer.



Rehabilitation; Enlightenment; Support; Training

(Come … and I will give you rest!)

Key Service Areas

Schools Work
- Child Evangelism and Discipleship

Literature Department
– Bookshops and Publications

Family Work
- Pre-marital, Marital and Parenting Counseling

Social Response
- HIV Prevention Life Skills Programmes,
- Orphan Care Programmes
- Care and Support for Abandoned, abused, neglected Children

Leadership Development

- Prefect Training, Pastors and Teacher Training Camps
- Impressing God’s Word upon their hearts,

Expressing God’s love to all mankind!

Contact Details

23 Selous Avenue
P. O. Box CY 252,
Phone: 263-4-252442
Fax: 263-4-252446

Read their first newsletter below


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Tsibogang Christian Action Group was founded in 2002 in Mafikeng, the capital of the NW Province in South Africa, by a group of concerned Christians from different denominations. Tsibogang is a word from the Setswana language (the predominant language used in the NW Province) and means Be Alert!  The centre of our organization is located in Lomanyaneng which is a suburb of Mafikeng.

Mission Statement:

We as Christians from different denominations are called to provide empathic care, support, counseling and unconditional love to those who are infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in the Central District of NW Province in South Africa  and to assist in the de-stigmatization of that condition.

We are also called to offer to the youth quality education, guidance and direction concerning human sexuality and a Christian life style that empowers them to make informed conscientious choices that prevent further infections.

So far four major projects could be initiated by our organization:

The first project is called Tshepanang (Trust each other). This project is concerned with the teaching of life skills for HIV prevention in middle and high schools. In 2007 35 peer educators taught the “Life at the Crossroad” curriculum in 15 schools reaching more than 4380 students. This program focuses on character building, information on HIV/AIDS and other STIs, assertiveness and decision making skills. It uses interactive teaching methods and is complemented by songs and dramas. Young people are encouraged to build strong and lasting relationships and to abstain from early sexual activity. Peer educators met every fortnight in three regional groups where they receive on-going in-service training from mentors.

- The second project is called Tlamelang (Care for each other!). This is a Home Based Care Project. In 2007 we have 85 trained home care givers who are actively involved in regular home visits to chronically and terminally ill clients. They assist families to meet the physical, emotional, social and spiritual needs of their clients. As HIV is still a highly stigmatized condition in our area we place special emphasis on counseling. Beside yearly five day workshops we have established an on-going counseling course that is held in our centre every fortnight and gives the home care givers the opportunity for debriefing and enhancing their counseling skills.

The home care givers meet at least once per month in their regional groups with a mentor who supervises and advises them. The mentor is usually a qualified nurse. So far we have established eight regional groups that include disadvantaged suburbs of Mafikeng and villages in the Zeerust Sub district. In the last financial year a total of 779 patients were visited and a total of 11,822 visits were conducted.

 By conducting home visits in their communities our home care givers were confronted with the ever increasing numbers of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) That’s why in 2006 we started a special project to help the orphans and vulnerable children in our area that we call Godisang (Bring up!). More than one thousand OVC have been registered on our data base so far. They have received blankets and mattresses. Our home care givers render psychosocial support, nutritional education and counselling to OVC and their guardians. They also assist in obtaining child support grant and foster care grant for the children. As the approval of grants is a lengthy procedure the neediest of the orphans receive food parcels on a temporal basis. OVC and their guardians are also encouraged to work in one of the vegetable gardens that could be established in seven regions of the project.

In January 2007 we were able to open Godisang Early Learning Centre in Magogoe/Mafikeng that caters for 30 OVC. They are receiving psychosocial support and age appropriate education as well as two meals pr day.

- The forth project is called Amogelang (Accept!). This is a support group of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). It has currently 25 members. They meet every Saturday in our centre to help each other to cope with the stigma that is still attached to their condition and encourage each other to live a positive life. Many of them are already on ART (Antiretroviral Treatment) that is available in the public hospitals of our district.

They do awareness campaigns in the local communities to encourage other PLWHA to found their own support groups

Contact Details:

NPO number of the organization:   023-524-NPO

Postal address:

P.O.Box 127,

Physical address:      

St. Mary’s Compound,
Telephone numbers: 018-3832519, 083-7161274, 018-3861204
Fax numbers:             018-3832519 or  018-3863925
E mail address: 
Name of contact person:    Dr. W. Hermann


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Voice of the Church


95, 96, 97 & 101 FM

Voice of the Church (VOC) in Swaziland is a Christian radio station, founded in 1994 in Swaziland. With 5 FM transmitters, the station can reach 85% of the country. It broadcasts 24 hours a day with many programmes. The mission of the organisation is to broadcast the Gospel and to serve people with radio programmes that discuss health issues and social issues. VOC has a good relation with churches in Swaziland and has close contacts with government organisations and NGO’s.

VOC is the partner of Trans World Radio (TWR) and airs programmes like Thru the Bible, Insight for Living, Word of God, but also many locally produced programmes in siSwati. The AIDS programme that is sponsored by TWR-Netherlands is called Luju Lolu Balalako. Other sponsoring activities by TWR-Netherlands concern an AIDS information film, ‘Swazi Kids on Air’.

Especially for the AIDS programme, VOC makes use of a network with government ministries, churches and NGOs. The network with churches and other well established organisations ensures a sustained growth of activities. There are possibilities to scale up activities, such as in the field of HIV/AIDS, by producing more AIDS radio programmes and organizing related activities, such as AIDS seminars. The restricting factor in this respect is the availability of finance. VOC recognizes the need for fundraising and marketing tools. By accessing sufficient finance, VOC has the possibility to acquire schooled staff from Swaziland and to train them with the facilities TWR provides. Also because of its position as a radio station in a network of churches and organisations, VOC has the potential to scale up in its role in events such as the national HIV campaign. VOC wants to improve her monitoring and evaluation capabilities.

In the area of mainstreaming regarding HIV/AIDS, attention is given to providing up to date information to the staff of VOC. VOC has no internal AIDS expertise, but because of the close contacts with the government and NGOs, staff are regularly educated. Training/information is provided by a government project.

Radio can be viewed as the ideal medium to involve communities in their health and livelihoods and also involve leaders at national, community, regional and rural levels. Radio is a medium where one’s level of education or status is not a criterion for receiving and understanding information or a message. The multiplier effect of reach by radio is great. A radio owner listening to his/her radio at top volume inadvertently reaches everyone within a volume radius as well as passer-by. Radio is also the best placed medium to reach all populations simultaneously in the language that they understand. It is also a medium widely accepted for relaying accurate messages and truth.

A letter excerpt:

“The programme sister has brought healing in my life. My husband went away for 3 years to study abroad. It was fine with me and he would come home in every opportunity he got. He finished his course and came back but his health was deteriorating. I am a listener of Honey That Kills so I asked him to do HIV Test as I have heard from the programme. He had all the opportunist infections so I suspected that he might be HIV positive. He refused to do the test and he didn’t get well and eventually died from full blown AIDS. I was so hurt more for the fact that I might be infected. I have been bitter and very confused as to how can God allow this to happen to me. You were with Pastor Malaza in the studio on the topic of forgiving a person who might have infected you with HIV/AIDS. I remember every word. Almost all the questions you asked are the one I had myself. You are our mouth piece sister so continue. As he was praying I cried and God did miracles. You cannot believe it but the joy I had before everything happened has been restored. It is a miracle but it happened”.

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uMephi Project



uMephi Program (Hereafter called Foster Homes and Place of Safety Homes also known as Halfway Homes)

Fundraising Number: 01 100115005 8

Welfare Organization: 11 02 0059

PBO: 18/11/13/1456


Foster Care/ Place of Safety Homes (Halfway Homes)

It is the focus of the A.F.M. Executive Welfare Council to:

  • establish ( obtain, purchase and equip) Foster Homes and Place of Safety Homes (Halfway Homes) in different communities in South Africa in order to accommodate and meet the need of more Children in need of care, more specific, abandoned children, children affected by HIV/Aids – Aids Orphans, children who are HIV-negative and children who are HIV-positive and have special needs. - recruit, screen, train and support Foster Parents/Place of Safety Parents and Adoptive Parents to care for the children.
  • appoint a Social worker to do the Statutory and Therapeutic Work to ensure a secure legal process as well as emotional wellness.
  • admit and enroll all children in educational programmes and involve them in Spiritual programmes to encourage maximum intellectual and spiritual development.
  • test (medical) and screen children for placement with a family in the shortest possible time – own family, adoption or foster care if needed.


The A.F.M. Executive Welfare Council, originated in 1938 as a result of the need to care for disadvantaged Children who, as a result of physical and sexual abuse, neglect, rejection or abandonment were removed from their parents/primary caregivers.

We have over the years provided a home for thousands of children and have saved many from not only physical harm but also from emotional and spiritual damage. Many Children were eventually re-united with families, others were placed with Foster Parents and Adoptive parents and many others have completed their Education in the Children’s Home, found jobs and are contributing to Society in a positive manner.

The South African Government (Welfare Department) has placed a moratorium on financing new Children’s Villages and Homes which means that no new developments will be subsidized. They are however prepared to pay a monthly grant of R590.00 per child to a Foster Home as well as R13.90 per day per child for a child in a Place of Safety.

The AFM Executive Welfare Council, through the u Mephi Program has established Halfway Homes for Abandoned babies in different provinces in South Africa : Cape Town (2), Port Elizabeth, Bloemfontein, Durban, Welkom (2), Kimberley, Upington, Pretoria (1) and Johannesburg (4) – see schedule attached. These homes can according to the Children’s Act only accommodate 6 children at a time, but as a result of the need, homes have to accommodate as many as 13 babies at one given time. The establishment of more Halfway homes are in the process as the need is growing each day. 2000 Babies have been accommodated since March 2001.

It is the intention of the AFM Executive Welfare Council to accommodate babies, toddlers and Orphans in Foster Homes in the same areas as the Halfway Homes as it has become clear that many of the babies and toddlers are HIV-positive/mildly disabled and will have to be cared for for as long as they live. It is also the intention of the AFM Executive Welfare Council to, through the same program, establish Community Trust Foster Homes for specifically Orphaned siblings. Once again 6 children will be placed in a home in the care of screened and trained Foster Parents. The home will however be registered in a Trust with the children as the sole beneficiaries.


The Service as planned will be ongoing for as long as the need exists.



The Program is available for children between the ages of 0 and 18 years from all communities and races who are abandoned, is HIV-negative, HIV-positive and/or orphaned. The area of operation will be communities where the needs exists and where a Home can function under the co-management and support of and assembly.


South Africa



Homes will provide care for the Child in Need of Care (Long term and Short term)

· Enter into an agreement with local assemblies in the Area of Operation that will support the project through the establishment of a Management Committee.
· Provide Recruitment, Screening and Training Programs in order to establish Homes where children can be accommodated and cared for by Foster Parents/Place of Safety Parents – 6 Children per one Parent.
· Provide Statutory and Supervisory Services;
· Provide training programs to ensure ongoing support systems through volunteers;
· Admit children of all races;
· Ensure that children be re-united with their families in the shortest possible time if at all possible.
· Test and screen children for Adoption if HIV-negative (HIV-testing, Hepatitis Tests, CT-Scans etc).
· Facilitate the Adoption processes through Welfare Organisations/Adoption Agencies.

The Homes will meet the basic needs of the children in it’s care by ensuring it is able to:

· Provide suitable Living facilities i.e. a House Unit where the children has a Bedroom and Bathroom, Furniture, Place to have meals, Place to study and Place to Play.
· Provide Food, Clothing, Medical care, Transport and Education.
· Provide Trained Foster Parents who will ensure that the physical, emotional and spiritual needs of the children are met.
· Provide medical care for HIV-positive children.

The Program will provide a service, which is in accordance with the Rights of Children.

  • Provide training and on-going Control and Supervision over the homes according to the Minimum Standards: The South African Child and Youth care System


Program Manager:
Mrs. Helena Jackson
Telephone: 27 12 332 0599
Fax:27 12 332 3819



Physical Address:
   1085 Hertzog Street
Postal Address:
   P.O.Box 31193


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